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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

basic rest–activity cycle

basic rest–activity cycle n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... restactivity cycle n. A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep . Also called the restactivity cycle . BRAC ...

basic rest-activity cycle

basic rest-activity cycle  

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the rest-activity ...
Leviticus

Leviticus   Reference library

Lester L. Grabbe and Lester L. Grabbe

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
22,756 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...late. ( 25:2–7 ) envisages a basic cycle of 7-year periods or sabbatical years. The last year of this cycle was a year when the land had to be left fallow. No crops were to be sown. That which grew up by itself (volunteer growth) was allowed, and the people could eat it for food on a day-to-day basis, but no harvesting as such was permitted. Of course, by a divine miracle there would be no hardship since the land would produce enough in the sixth year to tide the inhabitants over to the harvest of the crops sown in the new cycle ( vv. 19–22 ). In Leviticus the...

Ecclesiastes

Ecclesiastes   Reference library

Stuart Weeks and Stuart Weeks

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,053 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...or consummation. Without change, there is no novelty, and without effect, no satisfaction. Qoheleth describes a world without progress or culmination, where everything has been done before, but, unremembered, will be done again. This is not an assertion that the world follows cycles or patterns: although the sun, rather comically, hurries panting back to its starting place, the other phenomena are not cyclical, merely ceaseless. v. 8 suggests the inadequacy of human speech and senses for any comprehension of this endlessness: ‘All words are exhausted: a...

Deuteronomy

Deuteronomy   Reference library

Christoph Bultmann and Christoph Bultmann

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,352 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...an oration. A basic structural pattern of four elements consisting of a historical and paraenetic prologue—laws—covenant ( 26:16–19 )—blessings and curses, was regarded as reflecting the pattern of a cultic ceremony ( von Rad 1966 ). A similar basic pattern of four main elements, namely a historical prologue—a fundamental statement of allegiance ( 6:4–7 )—detailed stipulations—blessings and curses, was regarded as reflecting a pattern of ancient Near-Eastern political treaties ( McCarthy 1978 ; Weinfeld 1992 : 65–9 ). However, a simple basic pattern of...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

Eugenia Roldán Vera

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,881 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...ended up affecting the book industry or the business of bookselling: for example, a protectionist national policy toward papermaking in Mexico resulted in higher production costs for books. In addition, the fall in oil prices, precipitating a financial crisis that led to cycles of hyperinflation, devaluation, and economic recession in most of the region during the 1980s actually reduced the population’s income, increased book production costs, and led to declining book sales. From 1984 to 1990 , for example, Argentina produced 18 per cent fewer...

1 Corinthians

1 Corinthians   Reference library

John Barclay and John Barclay

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
31,224 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...have challenged a basic element in Paul's theology and he now demonstrates the pivotal significance of the resurrection of Jesus within the scheme of salvation ( vv. 20–8 ). This scheme is founded on an apocalyptic notion of the age of death being succeeded and overcome by an age of life, the latter being ushered in by a cosmic act of resurrection ( de Boer 1988 ). For Paul, the resurrection of Christ constitutes the ‘first fruits’ of that cosmic act ( vv. 20, 23 ), the beginning of the harvest which heralds the proximity of the rest. Pairing Christ with...

The Hebrew Bible

The Hebrew Bible   Reference library

Geoffrey Khan

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
15,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
13

...medieval Palestine the reading of the Pentateuch in the liturgy was completed in a three-year cycle. For this purpose the Pentateuch was divided into 154 (according to some traditions 167) weekly portions known as sedarim . The beginning of these sedarim are marked in the early Tiberian manuscripts from Palestine. In Babylonia the reading of the Pentateuch was completed in a year by dividing it into 54 portions. There is evidence that the custom of the one-year cycle of reading also had Palestinian roots. This would support the view expressed above that the...

Humanity and Islam

Humanity and Islam   Reference library

‘Ali Shari‘ati

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,585 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...At the present there are societies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America that have covered several historical cycles in one leap without having had to go through each separate stage. Historically, societies must pass through certain stages. But to the extent that such societies find historical self-consciousness and their free-thinkers become familiar with their particular historical epoch and its makeup, to that extent these societies can skip several cycles. We are now witnessing societies which were tent-dwellers or slaves, but suddenly, by revolting against...

Job

Job   Reference library

James L. Crenshaw and James L. Crenshaw

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...expressions (no ease, quiet, rest) contrast grammatically with the fourth (dread) and the verb ‘come’ links this verse with the previous one. By this means the poet indicates that Job's character is more complex than the prose acknowledges. Job's lament combines a number of grotesque images: a perpetually pregnant woman, Job's mother; a day robbed of its essence, light; two personified lovers, night and dawn, awaiting one another and condemned to an absence of sexual ecstasy; former enemies, oppressors and the oppressed, at rest together; and an instance of...

Religion and Liberty

Religion and Liberty   Reference library

Mehdi Bazargan

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,567 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that were wallowing in the darkness of idolatry and the cesspool of corruption and inequity. Conflict, one of whose quintessential representations for human beings is Satan, is the cause of a plethora of blessed events, from the natural cycle of life here on earth to the higher cycle of resurrection in the hereafter. The Qur'an frequently compares the colossal events of Judgment Day with seasonal rain and the revival of life on earth. Rain itself is the result of atmospheric disturbances and opposing forces of cold and warm weather...

A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria

A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria   Reference library

Edward F. Campbell Jr.

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,373 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...cycle of guards captained by military leaders which went on and off duty on the Sabbath; a priest of Yahweh's Temple who could bring to bear sanction and equipage; a pillar that emblemized royal designation and/or authority; a group called the Carites who formed a kind of praetorian guard; the action of the “people of the land.” For the DH to narrate so much about the Judean monarchs is unusual. The chapter is a unique resource for institutional history. The Chronicler's account of the incident presents other details, including replacing the cycle of...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Terence E. Fretheim and Terence E. Fretheim

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
29,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...); its rising and setting schedule the stages of Israel's journey. It is likely that the cloud would rest on the tabernacle and, while the tabernacle remained in the middle of the marching people, the cloud would proceed to the front of the procession ( see v. 17; 14:14 ). The various timings of this cloud activity ( v. 22 ) emphasize obedience and the need to follow a schedule (‘charge’) set by God, however irregular. At the same time, divine activity does not function apart from human agency ( see 10:1–10, 29–32 ). ( 10:1–10 ) The Two Silver Trumpets God...

Before Israel: Syria-Palestine in the Bronze Age

Before Israel: Syria-Palestine in the Bronze Age   Reference library

Wayne T. Pitard

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,805 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...by introducing Abraham and his wife Sarah (who are called Abram and Sarai in the early chapters). Genesis 11.29 introduces a serious problem for the couple, whose solution forms a major theme of the Abraham/Sarah cycle: Sarah is infertile. The first action of the cycle, Genesis 12.1–7 , presents the overarching theme, not only of the Abraham cycle, but also of the entire narrative that stretches from Genesis through the book of Joshua. In this passage, God calls Abraham to migrate to Canaan and makes two critical promises to him: that Abraham's descendants...

1 & 2 Samuel

1 & 2 Samuel   Reference library

Gwilym H. Jones, Gwilym H. Jones, and Gwilym H. Jones

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44,450 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...he had made him king ( vv. 10, 35 ). To complete the narrative, Samuel himself fulfilled the terms of the ban ( vv. 32–3 ), which was a criticism of Saul. Relations between them were then broken off ( vv. 34–5 ). The cycle of Samuel–Saul narratives is now completed and the next section consists of a Saul–David cycle. The basic question of this cycle, ‘Is Saul a man after God's heart?’, has been finally answered in the negative. He has been rejected because he rejected God's word ( 13:13; 15:23, 26 ), but it must be remembered that he was only reluctantly made...

1 & 2 Kings

1 & 2 Kings   Reference library

Walter Dietrich, Walter Dietrich, and Walter Dietrich

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
40,434 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...( 11:41–3 ) Solomon's Death Here we find the first (almost) regular concluding formula for a king. The editors admit that they have not told everything they know about Solomon. The rest can be read in the Book of the Acts of Solomon. Some over-sceptical critics believe this reference to be fictive. Unfortunately, only the excerpts quoted in 1 Kings 3–10 exist today. In its basic tone it was probably highly celebratory. Solomon's reign is reported to have lasted for the round sum of forty years. Death unites him with his ‘ancestors’, explicitly, of course,...

Luke

Luke   Reference library

Eric Franklin and Eric Franklin

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
46,452 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...shape of Luke's episodes cannot be ruled out. So his reporting of Jesus' rejection at Nazareth is seen as determined by the basic pattern of Mark's episode. Its ending is written up as a commentary on Mark's scene which enables it to further the thrust of Luke's gospel. The speech expresses an understanding of Jesus which makes him the fulfilment of OT expectations and justifies his career on the basis of earlier OT prophetic activity. That Luke is here using a source to supplement Mark must be acknowledged as a possibility, but its function as the expression...

Joshua

Joshua   Reference library

Gordon McConville and Gordon McConville

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,409 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...settling finally in their own land. The region does not seem to be formally part of the promised land ( Num 32 distinguishes it from the land of Canaan, vv. 29–30 ; for Deuteronomy, however, the war of conquest begins there). The key theological idea here is ‘rest’ ( vv. 12, 15; cf. Deut 12:9 ). Rest is a goal of the occupation narratives, entailing the complete possession of the land and the subduing of enemies ( Josh 11:23 ). Its definitive enjoyment, however, is elusive (cf. again 2 Sam 7:1 ). Finally, the response of Israel is important here ( vv. 16–18;...

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature

Essay with Commentary on Post-Biblical Jewish Literature   Reference library

Philip S. Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
48,106 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the rest of the work. But in what sense does it complement the law? Is there an implication that ᾽ Abot expresses the universal moral principles that underlie the concrete prescriptions of the halakah? This may well be the intention, though as some rabbinic jurists pointed out, it is hard to find a rational, moral basis for some of the ritual laws of the Torah, such as the prescriptions regarding the red heifer ( Num 19:1–13 ), which nevertheless should be obeyed as divine commandments ( Pesiq. Rab Kah. 4.7). 3. Given the scribes' basic concern with...

biological rhythm

biological rhythm  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Any periodic, more-or-less regular fluctuation or cycle in a biological system or process that is not wholly under the control of environmental cues but is controlled centrally by a biological clock. ...

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