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axin

Proteins (axin-1, 862 aa; axin-2, 843 aa) that control dorsoventral patterning by down-regulating β-*catenin to inhibit the Wnt signalling pathway, ventralizing the embryo, and activating ...

axin

axin   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
61 words

... any of a small family of proteins that bind glycogen synthase kinase 3 (a serine/threonine kinase), β‐catenin, and APC protein ( see APC ) to form a complex that targets β‐catenin for degradation ( see catenin ). It also interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase A2 and is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling. Axin 2 is also called conductin or...

axin

axin  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Proteins (axin-1, 862 aa; axin-2, 843 aa) that control dorsoventral patterning by down-regulating β-*catenin to inhibit the Wnt signalling pathway, ventralizing the embryo, and activating a ...
axins

axins   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...axins Proteins (axin-1, 862 aa; axin-2, 843 aa) that control dorsoventral patterning by down-regulating β ‎- catenin to inhibit the Wnt signalling pathway, ventralizing the embryo, and activating a Wnt-independent JNK signalling pathway that dorsalizes. Mutations in axin-1 are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, and greater methylation of the promoter is reported in a case of a caudal duplication anomaly. Defects in axin-2 cause oligodontia–colorectal cancer syndrome in which there is severe tooth agenesis and colorectal cancer. Axin interaction...

catenins

catenins  

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Overview Page
Proteins that are associated with the cytoplasmic domain of adhesion molecules such as cadherins and link them to the cytoskeleton. A second role is in regulating transcription factors. α-Catenin ...
osteopetrosis

osteopetrosis  

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Overview Page
(Albers-Schönberg disease, marble-bone disease) n. a congenital abnormality in which bones become abnormally dense and brittle and tend to fracture. Affected bones appear unusually opaque to X-rays. ...
Wnt

Wnt   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
90 words

...in the embryo and for regulation of cell proliferation thereafter. Wnt‐1 is expressed in the central nervous system. On binding to G‐protein‐coupled receptors of the Frizzled family in the plasma membrane, they cause inactivation of GSK‐3 , which is complexed with APC protein, axin, and β‐catenin, and targeted for ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. In the extracellular space they are inhibited by binding Wnt‐inhibitory factor‐1 ( WIF‐1...

glycogen synthase kinase‐3

glycogen synthase kinase‐3   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
104 words

...by inactivation by protein kinase B in response to insulin. It is an important component of Wnt protein signalling during embryonal patterning and development and also thereafter. Wnt signalling inactivates GSK‐3 by targeting it (in a complex with APC protein, β‐catenin, and axin) for ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Human GSK‐3 (420 amino acids) is highly homologous to SHAGGY (514 amino acids) of Drosophila . Arabidopsis thaliana contains ten GSK‐3/SHAGGY‐like kinase...

catenin

catenin   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
159 words

...it is homologous with γ‐catenin ( or plakoglobin ). δ‐Catenin is expressed in neurons, where it associates with presenilins. APC protein ( see APC ) plays an important role in regulating the stability of free β‐catenin. A complex containing β‐catenin, APC protein, axin , and GSK‐3 is targeted for ubiquitination and degradation by proteasomes. In the absence of functional APC protein (as occurs in many human cancers, including colorectal cancer) β‐catenin is not degraded, enters the nucleus and enhances transcription by binding to members of...

osteopetrosis

osteopetrosis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...disease) in which there is excessive mineralization and brittleness of bone. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type 1 (OPTA1) is caused by mutation in the LRP5 gene, encoding the LDL receptor related protein 5 that mediates wnt signalling in association with axin ; type 2 (OPTA2) is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene encoding chloride channel 7. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis type 1 (OPTB1, infantile malignant form) is caused by mutation in the TCIRG1 subunit of the vacuolar proton pump. Other forms of autosomal recessive...

Dyes and Pigments

Dyes and Pigments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,413 words

...Tzautli or Tzacutli is an adhesive material taken from the pseudo-bulbs of the orchids Epidendrum pastoris and Bletia campanulata ; it was ground and mixed with gypsum to produce the base layers for the pages of the codices. Aje , a fatty substance from the insect Llavenia axin , was used to manufacture maque , Mexican lacquer. Mordants. These substances were used in dyes, to fix the colors so that they were insoluble in the fabric fibers. The common mordants were tequezquite (niter, saltpeter), alum, white clays, urine, and oxalic acid obtained from...

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