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Overview

attentional blink

The attentional blink (AB) is a temporary state of poor awareness of current stimuli, lasting about half a second, that is induced by focusing attention and becoming consciously aware of ...

attentional blink

attentional blink   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,133 words
Illustration(s):
1

...visual attention in humans ’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA , 101. Luck, S. J. , Vogel, E. K. , and Shapiro, K. L. (1996). ‘ Word meaning can be accessed but not reported during the attentional blink ’. Nature , 383. Raymond, J. E. , Shapiro, K. L. , and Arnell, K. M. (1992). ‘ Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: an attentional blink? ’ Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Performance and Perception , 18. Shapiro, K. L. , Arnell, K. , and Raymond, J. E. (1997). ‘ The attentional blink: a view...

attentional blink

attentional blink  

The attentional blink (AB) is a temporary state of poor awareness of current stimuli, lasting about half a second, that is induced by focusing attention and becoming consciously aware of ...
blinking

blinking   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
400 words

.... When the eye is irritated by a foreign body, such as grit or a fly, we blink to remove it. This is a reflex , and there is also reflex closing of the eyes to prevent damage when we sneeze; but everyday blinking is not a reflex activity. A reflex needs an initiating signal; but if, for example, the eyes had to dry up to initiate blink signals, the blink would follow the beginnings of damage, due to the eyes drying, but it would be too late to protect the delicate corneas with a film of tears. Normal blinking is given by signals initiating in the brain,...

attention and awareness

attention and awareness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,377 words
Illustration(s):
1

...this induces the observer to focus attention on the attributes in question. Accordingly, voluntary discrimination tends to measure awareness of stimuli that are selected by attention. 3. Relation between attention and awareness In many situations, the voluntary discrimination of stimulus alternatives is found to require attention. In these instances, discrimination performance deteriorates to chance level when attentional capacity is exhausted or rendered unavailable by means of a concurrent task, an *attentional blink (e.g. Sergent et al. 2005 ), ...

change blindness

change blindness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,974 words

...or ‘mudsplashes’ flashed across a scene ( O'Regan et al. 1999 , Rensink et al. 2000 ), eye movements (e.g. Grimes 1996 ), eye blinks ( O'Regan et al. 2000 ), motion picture cuts or pans (e.g. Levin and Simons 1997 ), and real‐world occlusion events (e.g. Simons and Levin 1998 ). It can also occur in the absence of a disruption, provided that the change occurs gradually enough that it does not attract attention ( Simons et al. 2000 ). Change blindness is interesting because the missed changes are surprisingly large: a failure to notice one...

gamma oscillations

gamma oscillations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,806 words
Illustration(s):
5

...). A paradigm that has been used to study neural correlates of awareness in humans is the so‐called * attentional blink . This paradigm involves the rapid serial visual presentation of stimuli such as digits, letters, words, or pictures, typically at a fixed location with presentation frequencies ranging from 3 to 20 items per second (cf. Fig. G4). The notion of ‘attentional blink’ refers to a behaviourally well‐described transient reduction of attention, which can occur if more than one target has to be processed in such a series of stimuli. In this...

electroencephalography

electroencephalography   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,043 words
Illustration(s):
1

...neural *correlates of sophisticated implicit processing. For instance, two studies of ERPs demonstrated that unseen words trigger a semantic analysis. The first study was based on the *attentional blink paradigm, using a stream of briefly presented words and digits. The trick in this study was to provide the subject with a ‘context’ word, to which blinked words could be semantically related or not (Luck et al. 1996 ). Because ERPs to semantically related words and semantically unrelated words are very different, it was possible to show that word...

meditation, neurocognitive approaches

meditation, neurocognitive approaches   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,558 words

...increases sharply over medial frontoparietal electrodes and remains higher than the initial baseline in the post‐meditative baseline. In another study, we showed using performance in an *attentional blink task and scalp‐recorded brain potentials, that three months of intensive training in FA and OP practices enhanced the efficient deployment of limited attentional brain resources ( Slagter et al. 2007 ). Finally, Brefczynski‐Lewis et al. and Lazar et al. respectively assessed meditation‐related functional and structural changes using magnetic...

memory, visual short term

memory, visual short term   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,669 words

...VSTM arrays of coloured geometric shapes as well as meaningful pictures, momentary consciousness of both appearance and meaning is followed by rapid forgetting of much of the information. This pattern is seen in a number of related visual phenomena using RSVP. In the * attentional blink , when a viewer searches an RSVP stream for targets such as letters, the second of two targets is missed when it arrives 200–600 ms after the onset of the first target. In repetition blindness , when the task is to view and then recall all the items in RSVP, the second of...

neuronal global workspace

neuronal global workspace   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,770 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of thalamocortical columns, whose topology defines the contents of consciousness, the rest of the workspace neurons being inhibited. This inhibition temporarily prevents other stimuli from entering the GNW, thus creating a serial bottleneck and phenomena similar to the *attentional blink and *inattentional blindness . All‐or‐none ignition . Ignition corresponds to a sharp dynamic phase transition and is therefore all‐or‐none: a stimulus either fully ignites the GNW, or its activation quickly dies out. This all‐or‐none property defines a sharp threshold for...

masking, visual

masking, visual   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,434 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 2002 ). (3) Higher‐level visuo‐cognitive processes such as perceptual grouping, figure–ground segmentation, *attention, and visual imagery can modulate visual masking. The role of *gestalt grouping and attention in backward masking is currently of particular theoretical interest (Breitmeyer and Öğmen 2006 :Ch. 7). Conversely, masking plays a role in the temporal dynamics of the attentional blink and transient and sustained types of attention. (4) The relation of backward masking to suppression by *binocular rivalry and by *transcranial magnetic...

Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,574 words

...democracy, anti‐poverty strategies, and eradicating institutional, cultural, and individual racism, with more attention paid to the power divide that marginalizes black communities. Karen Chouhan Chauhan, Vipin , Beyond Steel Bands 'n' Samosas (1989) Jasper, Lee , ‘Trevor Phillips Is in Danger of Giving Succour to Racists’, 14 Oct. 2005, < http://www.blink.org.uk > Khan, Urmee , ‘In Defence of Multiculturalism’, 16 Nov. 2005, < http:/www.blink.org.uk > West, Patrick , The Poverty of Multiculturalism , Civitas Report (2005) See also Immigration ; ...

motion‐induced blindness

motion‐induced blindness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,858 words

...is tired and does not move his eyes or blink much. Motion‐induced blindness can be considered in relation to other conditions in which salient visual stimuli are blocked from conscious perception. For example, we often fail to notice stimuli that appear too briefly or stimuli that are of a very low contrast or are masked by some noise or a cluttered environment or when our attention is distracted. Such phenomena are studied as masking, *change blindness , *inattentional blindness , and the *attentional blink . Among the cases in which visual stimuli do...

global workspace theory

global workspace theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,622 words
Illustration(s):
1

...tests of *neuronal global workspace models (e.g. Dehaene and Naccache 2001 ). Because close comparisons between conscious and unconscious conditions are critical for such tests, they have used several methods designed to make such comparisons. The include the *attentional blink , visual backward *masking , *inattentional blindness , and subliminal vision. As dependent measures they have used visual event‐related potentials ( VERPs ) and *functional brain imaging (fMRI), particularly in visual face and word perception regions. In general, they...

contrastive analysis

contrastive analysis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,560 words

...are held as constant as possible. A great deal of modern research can be described in this way, using a variety of techniques that allow precise experimental control. They include *binocular rivalry , dual‐task experiments, studies of *automaticity after practice , *attentional blink , *inattentional blindness , episodic vs implicit *memory , and much more. Many pathologies of consciousness, such as *blindsight , visual neglect, face blindness and *anosognosia also involve conscious‐to‐unconscious comparisons. And of course, comparisons between...

albino

albino   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,228 words

...the pupil, flooding the retina with unbearable brightness. Albinos regularly turn their heads to the side and roll their eyes in a circular motion in an attempt to find a favourable axis of sight; they suffer from rapid nystagmus (an oscillatory motion of the eyeball), and blink constantly. Light becomes tolerable only with the onset of twilight, when smaller quantities penetrate the iris, so that vision is more or less normalized. Albinos feel especially good — or so it would appear — and can see best on starlit nights and by the light of the moon, which...

reaction time

reaction time   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,081 words

...refer to this type of reaction as a reflex, and the time it takes as the reflex response time. In electronic jargon we can imagine that it is a hard-wired input–output circuit. There are rather few examples where the circuit is so simple. The corneal reflex, which causes an eye blink when a speck of dust hits the cornea, is one of the few other familiar examples. Most other very rapid reactions turn out to be more complex. Withdrawal of a hand from a hot cooker is certainly automatic, but can, with great effort of will, be controlled. The neural circuit is...

stroke

stroke   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,447 words
Illustration(s):
1

...have devastating effects, sometimes eliminating consciousness completely, or, perhaps even worse, leaving a conscious mind in a useless body. The French writer Jean-Dominique Bauby gives a unique view of this state in his autobiography — paralysed except for the capacity to blink an eye, he described himself as a ‘butterfly’ trapped inside a ‘diving bell’. In 1761 , Battista Morgagni , Professor of Anatomy in Padua, first clearly attributed strokes to limitation of blood flow to the brain. In 85% of cases this comes from blockage of a blood vessel giving...

grand illusion

grand illusion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,494 words

...is far from clear. Another point to note is that if we say that consciousness is an illusion we must give up the idea that people are infallible about their own experiences. Change blindness is a curious inability to detect changes in an image when they occur during a saccade or blink, or when the two images are separated by a brief flash or distraction. Under these conditions subjects are very unlikely to notice even large changes, even though they expect to be able to, and are surprised when they cannot. In some of the earliest experiments on change...

sensorimotor approach to (phenomenal) consciousness

sensorimotor approach to (phenomenal) consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,841 words

...access or attention, and to the notion of self, do not necessitate any scientifically mysterious mechanisms: attention is a notion already widely used in psychology, where it is considered difficult, but not in any way ‘magical’ or impossible to implement or understand scientifically. The ‘self’ is a complex construct corresponding to an agent's capacity to reason about its own potential cognitive and social behaviours, but it is also not magical. To the extent that the sensorimotor approach makes use of the notion of cognitive access and attention, it bears...

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