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assurance game

Subject: Philosophy

Game-theoretic structure also known as the stag hunt, deriving from Rousseau's example in A Discourse on Inequality. In an assurance game, it is best for everybody, individually and ...

assurance game

assurance game   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
178 words
Illustration(s):
1

... game Game-theoretic structure also known as the stag hunt, deriving from Rousseau ’s example in A Discourse on Inequality . In an assurance game, it is best for everybody, individually and socially, if all cooperate. But each fears that the others may not play their part and is then motivated to defect. In Rousseau’s example, instead of continuing to play a role in the stag hunt, which requires cooperation, individual hunters allow themselves to be distracted by the lesser game of a hare, which can be caught by an individual, each reasoning that they...

assurance game

assurance game  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Game-theoretic structure also known as the stag hunt, deriving from Rousseau's example in A Discourse on Inequality. In an assurance game, it is best for everybody, individually and socially, if all ...
Jihad and the Modern World

Jihad and the Modern World   Reference library

Jackson Sherman

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,768 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...leaders and intellectuals, especially those in the West, on the defen-sive, a corollary to which has been a rush to extirpate all traces of violence from Islam. This is understandable, given the enormous pressure being applied by the media and government agencies in search of assurances from Muslims. But there is also a dangerous side to this approach. For it carries the potential to radicalize the Muslim masses by undermining the credi-bility of Muslim leaders and intellectuals, who come to be seen as being more interested in appeasing the government-media...

Romans

Romans   Reference library

Craig C. Hill and Craig C. Hill

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,053 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that he does not possess a rational answer. Instead, he responds, ‘Who are you, a human being, to argue with God?’ ( 9:20 ). Here as elsewhere in the NT, predestination is not mentioned abstractly; it usually functions either as assurance (as in Rom 8 ) or as theodicy (as in Rom 9 ; really another form of assurance). The essential point is that, despite all appearances to the contrary (the ‘all things’ of v. 28 ), God has everything under control. As was mentioned in connection with rom 1:16 , ‘justification’ in Romans combines two ideas: that...

Ephesians

Ephesians   Reference library

J. D. G. Dunn and J. D. G. Dunn

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
17,129 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...(wholeness) it brings ( v. 13; cf. 1 Thess 1:5 ); and the experience of being marked out by the Spirit as belonging to God (the function of a ‘seal’)—the reference will be to the impact made by the Spirit (as e.g. in Rom 5:5; 1 Cor 6:9–11 ), rather than to baptism—and of the assurance the Spirit brings ( cf. Rom 8:14–16 ), as being the first instalment and guarantee of the complete redemption/liberation still to come ( vv. 13–14; cf. Rom 8:23; 2 Cor 1:21–2 ). But the blessing is primarily directed to God. He is the subject of the main active verbs (‘blessed,...

Job

Job   Reference library

James L. Crenshaw and James L. Crenshaw

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...an additional dimension, religious devotion, occurs). Job attributes these four characteristics to God, who frustrates human efforts at being wise. Kings, counsellors, priests, judges, and elders—the entire ruling class of society—are mere pawns in a divine game aimed at exposing human stupidity. This game also involves whole nations, whose fortunes depend on God's whim, and whose leaders are reduced to staggering in darkness like drunkards. ( 13:1–3 ) vv. 1–2 , having completed his parody of the friends' claim to possess wisdom and of conventional hymnic...

2 Corinthians

2 Corinthians   Reference library

Margaret MacDonald and Margaret MacDonald

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of humanity ( Gal 3:13 ); sin may also refer to a sin-offering here ( Rom 8:3; cf. Isa 53:4–10 ). ( 6:3–13 ) Commendation through Hardships A common goal of ancient rhetoric was to establish the speaker's ethos or character ( Witherington 1995 : 44, 398 ). Paul begins with assurances that he has placed no ‘obstacle’ before the Corinthians. He seems to have believed that ministers were very influential in facilitating or preventing access to salvation ( Murphy-O'Connor 1990 : 822 ). Paul presents eloquent wisdom (rhetoric devoid of content) as being able to...

A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria

A Land Divided: Judah and Israel from the Death of Solomon to the Fall of Samaria   Reference library

Edward F. Campbell Jr.

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,373 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...will not succeed; neither fear nor resist it. If you want reassurance that this is so, ask for a sign—and if you are too pious to ask for a sign, you will get it anyway. A son has already been conceived by one known to us both (the queen? the prophet's wife?) whose name is the assurance, Immanuel, “El is with us.” By the time that child has been weaned, the threat of the Syro-Ephraimite conspiracy will have been put down by Assyria. Isaiah's message would have amounted to counsel not to take such measures as sending to Assyria for help. As noted...

1 & 2 Kings

1 & 2 Kings   Reference library

Walter Dietrich, Walter Dietrich, and Walter Dietrich

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
40,434 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...community. The oracle actually continues in vv. 32–3 ( v. 34 is a late-Deuteronomistic inclusion, cf. 1 Kings 11:12–13 ). The speech has an ABCBA structure. After the introductory and before the concluding formula (‘thus says the Lord —says the Lord ’) is the double assurance that the enemy ‘shall not come into this city’ surrounding the central statement: the enemy's weapons cannot harm Jerusalem and he shall retreat in failure. This prophecy immediately takes effect: a plague-bringing angel kills scores of soldiers in the Assyrian camp ( v. 35 ),...

Acts

Acts   Reference library

Loveday Alexander and Loveday Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
42,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as martyrs: ‘worthy to be dishonoured for the Name’ is a highly paradoxical statement that expresses the Christian theology of martyrdom very well, and illustrates the importance attached to honour and shame in the first-century Mediterranean world. The section closes with an assurance that the apostles' parrhēsia is undaunted ( v. 42 ): the gospel message is assiduously proclaimed, not only in the temple but ‘from house to house’. Act I Scene 4: The First Christian Martyr ( 6:1–7:60 ) The Jerusalem section of Luke's narrative closes with an extended trial...

collective-action problem

collective-action problem  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Any situation in which the uncoordinated actions of each player may not result in the best outcome he or she can achieve. Two famous examples are Chicken and Prisoners' Dilemma, another class of ...
Krishna Menon

Krishna Menon  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b. Calicut, 3 May 1896; d. Delhi, 6 Oct. 1974)Indian; member of the Indian parliament 1952–67, 1969–74, Minister for Defence 1957–62 A member of the Menon caste from Kerala, Menon was educated at ...
democratic peace

democratic peace  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The idea that democratic or republican states are more peaceful in their external relations and never (or almost never) fight each other. Modern democratic peace theory (DPT) builds on a ...
free riders

free riders   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
25 words

...riders Those who are content to partake of the benefits of some cooperative enterprise, without contributing to it. See also assurance game , collective goods...

collective action problem

collective action problem   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
223 words

...problem is the Assurance Game. In a typical Assurance game, you and I have agreed to meet in London tomorrow, but we have forgotten to specify where and when. So each of us must try to think what the other is likely to be thinking (which of course includes my thinking what you are thinking that I am thinking, and so on). If each of us thinks that the other thinks (that the other thinks…) that the likeliest venue is, say, in front of the National Gallery at noon, then the collective action problem is optimally solved; otherwise not. Assurance games are trivial...

Nash, Richard

Nash, Richard (1674–1762)   Reference library

A. S. Hargreaves

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
151 words

...Richard ( 1674–1762 ), later known as ‘Beau’ Nash. Son of a Swansea glass-maker, and briefly lured by the scarlet, Nash entered the Inner Temple ( 1693 ), but his self-assurance, good manners, and dress concealed penury, hence his resort to preposterous wagers. Addiction to gaming drew him to Bath ( 1705 ), which, although fashionable, had few arrangements for comfort or entertainment. Good organizational skill and energy led to a position as master of ceremonies (later, additionally, at Tunbridge Wells), where, mixing kindness, generosity, conceit, and...

Box-Set

Box-Set   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
141 words

...of flats which form continuous walls, with practicable doors and windows, completely covered in by a ceiling- cloth . In London the box-set was first used in Mme Vestris 's production of W. B. Bernard's The Conquering Game in 1832 , and brought to perfection in her production of Boucicault 's London Assurance at Covent Garden in 1841 . It was in general use for more than a century, especially for contemporary drama; but since it can only function behind a proscenium arch , the widespread acceptance of various kinds of open stage as...

Interdependence

Interdependence   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,605 words

...can contribute to this outcome. Among allies, the Assurance II game typically holds: that is, each side considers its own best payoff to lie where the other partner also benefits. To conclude from these three illustrations: in the most general sense interdependence is neutral; whether it is cooperative or conflictual depends upon the nature of the situation and of the particular game that is being played. In recent years Harold Kelley and John Thibaut have tried to decompose interdependent game matrices into different components. Without trying to...

prisoners’ dilemma

prisoners’ dilemma   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
444 words
Illustration(s):
1

...again. As well as being an efficient strategy ‘tit for tat’ has some intuitive moral justification. However, the strategy is sensitive to the ratio of rewards and penalties that are in play, and cannot be said to be the single best strategy for all circumstances. See also assurance game ; chicken ; commons, tragedy of . http://www.univie.ac.at/virtuallabs/Introduction/pd.html An online tutorial on the prisoners’ dilemma http://www.gametheory.net/applets/prisoners.html Simulations of the prisoners’...

Drama Theory

Drama Theory   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,166 words

...period of the episode and can attempt resolution. However, once characters move off independently to deliver on the assurances that they have made to others, they may review, reconsider, and possibly renege on what they said they would do. It is at this phase of separate evaluation that game-theoretic thinking has relevance, for obtaining optimal payoffs from a situation whose eventual development depends on other players is precisely what game theory can provide. So, although an authentic resolution might be achieved, cooperation may be betrayed, or...

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