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associations

Were a stage in the development of lobbies to express opinion and influence policy. They began innocuously as demonstrations of loyalty at times of crisis. Burghley and Walsingham ...

association

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
31 words

... [Th] The relationship between an artefact and other archaeological finds and a site level, or other artefact, structure, or feature in the site. See closed association ; spatial association ; stratigraphic association...

association

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A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
64 words

...association An ecological unit in which two or more species occur in closer proximity to one another than would be expected on the basis of chance. Early plant ecologists recognized associations of fixed composition on the basis of the dominant species present (e.g. a coniferous forest association). Associations now tend to be detected by using more objective statistical sampling methods. See also consociation...

association

association   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
22 words

... a reversible union between two chemical entities, whether alike or different, to form a more complex substance. Compare dissociation (def....

association

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A Dictionary of Chemical Engineering

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...association The grouping together of atoms or molecules often in the vapour state or in solution to form conglomerates of high molecular weight. Compare dissociation . ...

association

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The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Medicine and health
Length:
114 words

... 1 An attentional style , which is consistent with internal focus. It is illustrated by some distance runners who tend to be very aware of their own emotions and internal body sensations, for example, how their legs feel during performance. Compare dissociation . 2 Used synonymously with correlation in descriptive statistics. 3 A form of learning that establishes the relationship between different events. The basic elements of association learning are connections between the stimulus and response. The strength of an association is influenced by...

association

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A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
28 words

... the joint occurrence of two genetically determined characteristics in a population at a frequency that is greater than expected according to the product of their independent...

association

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A Dictionary of Dentistry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Dentistry
Length:
102 words

... n. 1. A term used in statistics to describe two variables which have a known link or statistical dependence. A positive association exists when high values of one variable tend to be associated with high values of the other variable and vice versa, e.g. smoking and lung cancer. A negative association exists when high values of one variable tend to be associated with low values of the other variable and vice versa, e.g. periodontal disease and frequency of toothbrushing. Association does not imply causation . 2. A recognized pattern of...

association

association  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... The activities and goals that link people together in associations have been a primary subject of sociological and anthropological research. In English, the term has been used to translate Ferdinand Tönnies 's influential distinction between Gesellschaft (association) and Gemeinschaft (community). A broad current of social research adopted Tönnies's characterization of association as large in scale and constituted by impersonal or contractual bonds. A variety of other definitions and theoretical tools address group identity and interpersonal...

association

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A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
167 words

... 1. A group of animals that share a home range and spend a significant proportion of their time in each other’s company. The association may be interspecific, comprising members of two species, or polyspecific, involving several species. Both species in an interspecific association benefit from improved exploitation of their shared resources. Polyspecific associations are common among callitrichid primates ( Callitrichidae ). For example, in Bolivia saddle-backed tamarins ( Sanguinus fuscicollis ) and red-bellied tamarins ( S. labiatus ) were...

Association

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A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Association 1 . Statistical dependence between two or more events, characteristics, or other variables. An association is present if the probability of occurrence of an event or characteristic, or the quantity of a variable, varies with the occurrence of one or more other events, the presence of one or more other characteristics, or the quantity of one or more other variables. The association between two variables is described as positive or direct when higher values of a variable are associated with higher values of another variable, and as...

association

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A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
48 words

... The combination of molecules of one substance with those of another to form chemical species that are held together by forces weaker than normal chemical bonds. For example, ethanol and water form a mixture (an associated liquid ) in which hydrogen bonding holds the different molecules...

association

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A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Mathematics and Computer Science
Length:
551 words
Illustration(s):
5

... Two variables are associated if they are not independent, i.e. if the value of one variable affects the value, or the distribution of the values, of the other. Thus, for a human population, height and weight are associated, and so are actual skin-colour and ethnicity. In the case of numerical variables an appropriate measure is the correlation coefficient . In the case of ordinal variables and categorical variables , an alternative measure of association is required. Yule used the term ‘association’ in his 1900 paper that proposed a...

association

association   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
40 words

...association An entity created by the action of combining together for a common purpose; confederation, league ( see incorporated association ; unincorporated association ); also the action of combining with others for a purpose, as in criminal association ( see banned groups...

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Two or more species living in the same place at the same time. See also community...

association

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...association Literally, a connection. 1. Statistical dependence between two or more events, characteristics, or other variables. An association is present if the probability of occurrence of an event or characteristic, or the quantity of a variable, varies with the occurrence of one or more other events, the presence of one or more other characteristics, or the quantity of one or more other variables. The association between two variables is described as positive or direct when higher values of a variable are associated with higher values of another...

association

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... 1 A learned connection between a type of event and a neutral stimulus with which it is paired (e.g. the sensation of hunger that may follow the chiming of a clock, denoting the time at which a meal is customarily presented). See also conditioning . 2 See plant association...

association

association ((variables))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business Research Methods

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
156 words

... (variables) A systematic relationship between variables . Two variables are said to be in association when the change in the value of one of them is systematically accompanied by a change in the value of the other variable. They can be said to covary. The relationship between the variables may be positive or negative and does not necessarily imply that the movement of either of the variables is causing the movement in the other, nor that they are directly in proportion to each other. Examples of variables that might have a positive ...

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A Dictionary of Animal Behaviour (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
196 words

...the term ‘association’ has theoretical implications. Learning by association implies that there is a linkage between stimuli, rather than a linkage between stimulus and response. Different theories of association may ascribe the linkage to stimulus substitution (one stimulus standing for another); contiguity of stimuli (contiguous stimuli are associated); or the learning of cause and effect relationships, in which an event (the cause) can cause another event (the effect) to happen or not to happen. These different theories of association form part of the...

association (plant association)

association (plant association)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... (plant association) A plant community unit; a floral assemblage with a characteristic dominant and persistent...

controlled association

controlled association n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...association n. Another name for directed association...

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