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Overview

arms race

A competition between nations for superiority in the development and accumulation of weapons, especially between the U.S. and the former USSR during the Cold War.

arms race

arms race   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
61 words

... race Rivalry between states or blocs of states to achieve supremacy in military strength. The first modern instance was the race between Germany and Britain to build up their navies before World War 1. The term refers principally to the race in nuclear weapons between the Soviet Union in the Cold War , though arms races also occur at regional...

arms race

arms race   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... race a competition between nations for superiority in the development and accumulation of weapons, especially between the U.S. and the former USSR during the Cold War...

Arms Race

Arms Race   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,512 words

...the multitude of rationales that underlie arms races is that the dream of game theorists to characterize all arms races by reference to a single game such as the Prisoner's Dilemma will probably not be realized. The pattern of arms growth that must be present is also problematic. Lewis Richardson , the best-known arms race theorist, argued that the rate of arms accumulation in an arms race either converges to a stable growth rate or continues to accelerate. This model provides an adequate description of the arms race preceding World War I , the inspiration...

arms race

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
165 words

... race A process in which two or more states, feeling themselves to be insecure or threatened, acquire armaments, each side responding to the acquisition of arms by the other with a further build‐up of its own. This action–reaction mechanism may acquire a momentum of its own, fuelling perceptions of insecurity, threat, and the need for more armaments. This is particularly so during times of rapid technological innovation, as in the “naval race” between Britain and Germany to build Dreadnoughts before World War I. A more recent example was the US–Soviet arms...

arms race

arms race n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... race n. A competition between military powers building up armaments; hence figuratively in evolutionary theory, a sequence of evolutionary changes in two (or more) species competing for survival and reproduction, often a predator and its prey , in which each advantageous adaptation ( 1 ) in one is countered by a corresponding adaptation in the...

arms race

arms race   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
84 words

... race The competition between two or more powers to develop and build more and newer weapons. The prototype was the competition between the British and German navies in the late nineteenth century, whereas the most extreme case was the development of vast nuclear arsenals by the United States and USSR during the Cold war . The latter was based on the logic of mutually assured destruction (MAD), whereby any act of nuclear aggression by one party would trigger a retaliation that would destroy...

Arms Race

Arms Race   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... Race Overview Naval Arms Race Nuclear Arms Race Arms Race: Overview The term arms race has been used since the 1850s to describe periodic competitions between states to shift (or preserve) the balance of power between them by modernizing their weaponry and increasing the magnitude of various arms stocks. However, it was not until the end of World War I that arms races were viewed as a special pathology of interstate behavior that required explanation. At a loss to account for a war whose duration and horror seemed inexplicable by the logics of political or...

arms race

arms race n   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: English-French (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
7 words
arms race

arms race n   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Spanish Dictionary: English-Spanish (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
6 words
arms race

arms race n   Quick reference

Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary: English-Italian (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Bilingual Dictionary
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Bilingual dictionaries
Length:
7 words
arms race

arms race noun   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
15 words
arms race

arms race noun   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
50 words
arms race

arms race noun   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
52 words
arms race

arms race  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A competition between nations for superiority in the development and accumulation of weapons, especially between the U.S. and the former USSR during the Cold War.
Jihad

Jihad   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,776 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...God’s sake to achieve a desirable thing or to avert an undesirable one. It stresses that fighting to elevate God’s word was accomplished by force of arms in the early Islamic period. But in the modern era, arms are not needed to remove obstacles in the path of bidding people to Islam. Thus, arms are to be used only to defend the community. Saqr rejects the argument that Islam was originally spread by force of arms and cites as evidence Qurānic verses advocating peaceful relations. Question: What does the term “Jihad” mean to you as Muslims? Answer: by Sheikh...

The Minority Report

The Minority Report   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,806 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...matter to what race or tribe he belongs. The main cause of raising this question [of polygamy] is inferiority complex against the West and the desire to copy it blindly. Our young men and women, who happen to visit Europe, often find themselves in situations in which their country is ridiculed for permitting polygamy. Unable to think out for themselves, these young things readily take to the course of condemning polygamy as the greatest evil in society. It is in fact this class of persons who have, on their return from abroad, taken up arms against polygamy...

The Indonesian Revolution

The Indonesian Revolution   Reference library

Muhammad Natsir

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,838 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...is not an exact translation of ta‘assub ). But let's use the word fanaticism meaning fanaticism in the broadest sense. Fanaticism in ideas, fanaticism in defending one's race and kin group. In this connection I had better put something forward, because often people assume that Islam is opposed to the very existence of races or nations—in short, they say, Islam repudiates the existence of race, as though those who have embraced Islam have lost their nationhood altogether. Such is not the truth. We can be dutiful Muslims while, at the same time, we sing with joy...

Minorities in a Democracy

Minorities in a Democracy   Reference library

Humayun Kabir

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,430 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...State. Muslims were required to bear arms in defense of the State and were exempted from this tax, but those who were not required to bear arms, or purchased exemption, had to pay the tax. They had thus no obligation to defend the country but enjoyed the security guaranteed by the State and were required to pay a special tax instead. This is the notorious, famous, infamous, whichever way you put it, jizya . Jizya was thus nothing but a kind of polltax by which a person purchased the right of not being called to arms. Some modern States have the system of...

On Martyrdom (Shahadat)

On Martyrdom (Shahadat)   Reference library

‘Alī Sharī‘atī

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,396 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...aim which he is moving toward with his unique selection of companions—men who had come to die with him—as well as members of his family. These are all of the things that he possesses in this world and he leads them to be sacrificed at the altar of shahadat . . . . He who has no arms and no means has come with all of his existence, his family, his dearest companions, so that his shahadat and that of his whole family will bear witness to the fact that he carried out his responsibility at a time when truth was defenseless and unarmed. He bears witness that...

Religious Liberty

Religious Liberty   Reference library

Mohamed Talbi

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
5,482 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...conscience, and it is not our role to interfere in it. Muslims are authorized to take up arms in only one case, self-defense, when they are attacked and their faith seriously jeopardized. In such a case “fighting” ( al-qital ) is “prescribed” ( kutiba ), even if they “dislike it” ( kurhun lakum ) (Sura 2, Verse 194) . To summarize—Muslims are urged not to yield, when their conscience is at stake, and to take up arms against “those who will not cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith, if they can.” (Sura 2, Verse...

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