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Overview

archaeology

The study of past human cultures through the analysis of material remains (as fossil relics, artefacts, and monuments), which are usually recovered through excavation.

archaeology

archaeology ([De])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
564 words

... ( archeology ) [De] Literally, ‘the study of ancient things’; the term archaeology embraces a unique, broad, and ever-changing set of perspectives and practices that is hard to classify because it combines elements of the arts, humanities, sciences, and social sciences. Writing in 1948, Walter Taylor was confidently able to assert that ‘Archaeology is neither history nor anthropology. As an autonomous discipline, it consists of a method and a set of specialized techniques for the gathering or “production” of cultural information.’ Archaeology is...

historical archaeology

historical archaeology ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
39 words

...archaeology [Ge] A branch of archaeology based on the text‐aided study of archaeological questions. It involves combining archaeological and historical methods, sources, and perspectives, and naturally focuses on relatively recent periods. It is sometimes called historic sites archaeology...

underwater archaeology

underwater archaeology ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
35 words

...archaeology [Ge] A subdiscipline involving the study and investigation of archaeological sites, deposits, and shipwrecks beneath the surface of the water in the seas, oceans, lakes, and rivers. See also maritime archaeology ; wetland archaeology...

critical archaeology

critical archaeology ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
19 words

...archaeology [Th] A theoretical approach to archaeology that assumes that archaeologists have an active impact on their...

feminist archaeology

feminist archaeology ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
59 words

...archaeology [Th] An approach to archaeological interpretation that provides a critique of androcentric notions and biases, and foregrounds the experiences of women in the past. The belief that women have suffered from oppression in western society carries with it the implication that archaeologists need to examine gender roles and inequalities within the archaeological profession. See also gender archaeology...

urban archaeology

urban archaeology ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
26 words

...archaeology [Ge] Subdiscipline involving the application of archaeological methods to the study of major towns, cities, and urban areas, and to the process of...

cognitive archaeology

cognitive archaeology ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
27 words

...archaeology [Th] A branch of archaeology that is primarily concerned with the study of past ways of thinking and symbolic structures from patterns in material...

Wessex Archaeology

Wessex Archaeology ([Or])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
71 words

...Archaeology [Or] One of the largest archaeological contractors in Britain, based at Salisbury, Wiltshire. Originally established in 1974 as the Trust for Wessex Archaeology, it was born out of the Wessex Archaeological Committee as one of the first regional rescue archaeology units in the country. Still a charity, the company is independent of ties to local or national government, and carries out archaeological investigations, surveys, and management projects throughout...

social archaeology

social archaeology ([Th])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
91 words

...archaeology [Th] A subdiscipline of archaeology developed in the 1970s by Colin Renfrew and others which follows the contention, widely held in Anglo‐American archaeology, that understanding the archaeological past must involve reconstructing past societies and social practices in their totality; that artefacts and other archaeological finds must be placed in a social context. Taking a lead from anthropological and sociological enquiries this means taking a ‘top‐down’ view by focusing on the systems, institutions, and organization of society before...

salvage archaeology

salvage archaeology ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
98 words

...archaeology [Ge] North American term for the kind of systematic investigations, often partial, precipitated by development pressure or the need to rescue remains prior to their destruction. Based on the premiss that some work is better than none, salvage archaeology is the main source of archaeological information in areas where remains are constantly under threat. Because salvage archaeology is threat‐led, it is only rarely possible to be selective about what is examined, and time constraints often mean that many of the more refined techniques of data...

Behavioral Archaeology

Behavioral Archaeology   Reference library

Vincent M. LaMotta

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,574 words

...conceptualization of the archaeological record and its formation processes, have become widely integrated into general archaeological thought. Behavioral archaeology was initially formulated by Schiffer and J. Jefferson Reid in the early 1970s, in part as a critique of processual (“new”) archaeology and the assumptions that early processualists made about the archaeological record. In his 1976 book, Behavioral Archeology , Schiffer pointed out that while early processualists assumed that patterning in the archaeological record directly reflected the...

maritime archaeology

maritime archaeology ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
50 words

...archaeology ( marine archaeology ) [Ge] A subdiscipline of archaeology that focuses on the scientific investigation of the relics of past ships and seafaring. Although some of the evidence on which this is based comes from dry‐land sites, the majority is below water within the intertidal zone and...

conservation archaeology

conservation archaeology ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
54 words

...archaeology [Ge] A term popularized by Michael Schiffer and George Gumerman through a book with the title Conservation archaeology ( 1977 , London and New York: Academic Press), which explores approaches to the utilization of cultural remains to their fullest scientific and historic extent and for greatest public benefit. See also archaeological resource management...

classical archaeology

classical archaeology ([De])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
32 words

...archaeology [De] A branch of archaeology that focuses on the great civilizations of the Old World, especially Greece and Rome during the later 1st millennium bc and early 1st millennium ad...

wetland archaeology

wetland archaeology ([De])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
81 words

...archaeology [De] Archaeological work that focuses on essentially terrestrial areas that are permanently or periodically waterlogged, for example peat bogs, salt marshes, river and lake margins, and the inter‐tidal zone around the shores of large lakes and oceans. Such areas generally have good preservation of organic materials such as timber, bone, and textiles. Work in areas that are permanently submerged below standing water of one sort or another is generally referred to as underwater archaeology or maritime archaeology...

rescue archaeology

rescue archaeology ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
65 words

...archaeology [Ge] A term coined in the 1960s in Britain for field archaeology carried out on sites under threat of destruction; synonymous with the American salvage archaeology . In Britain the term is closely associated with the large increase in the loss of archaeological sites as a result of increased development in the 1960s and 1970s, especially the motorway construction programme and urban...

skyscape archaeology

skyscape archaeology ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
91 words

...archaeology [Ge] A branch of archaeology that draws on historical, ethnographical, astronomical, meteorological, and climatic evidence to reconstruct how the skyscape was experienced and understood by ancient peoples, and what role elements of the skyscape played in their ontologies and cosmologies. Skyscape archaeology distances itself from the assumptions and interpretations common in archaeoastronomy , focusing instead on the sociocultural contexts in which elements of particular skyscapes were made meaningful to past communities. Skyscape...

Community Archaeology

Community Archaeology   Reference library

Christopher N. Matthews and Carol McDavid

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,615 words

...Archaeology, 2010. LaRoche, Cheryl J. , and Michael Blakey . “Seizing Intellectual Power: The Dialogue at the New York African Burial Ground.” In the Realm of Politics: Prospects for Public Participation in African-American Archaeology. Special issue of Historical Archaeology 31, no. 3 (1997): 84–106. Marshall, Yvonne , ed. “Community Archaeology.” Special issue of World Archaeology 34, no. 2 (2002): 211-403. Matthews, Christopher N. “The Location of Archaeology.” In Ethnographic Archaeologies: Reflections on Stakeholders and Archaeological...

Environmental Archaeology

Environmental Archaeology   Reference library

George Michaels

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
301 words

...Archaeology Environmental archaeology is a term applied to a broad range of specialized studies in archaeology that pertain to prehistoric human environment interactions. Much of the growth of what could be considered environmental archaeology dates to the early 1960s. It was during this time that cultural ecology became a prominent theoretical school in American cultural anthropology and exerted a powerful influence on many American archaeologists who themselves were promoting the “new archaeology.” Central to the new archaeology was an emphasis...

New Archaeology

New Archaeology ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
229 words

...of models of cultures that could be viewed as systems; incorporating an evolutionary approach to culture change; and a close relationship between archaeology and anthropology. In Britain, David Clarke 's book Analytical archaeology , also published in 1968 , took up similar themes, emphasizing particularly the application of systems theory to archaeological modelling. Although the proponents of the New Archaeology were heavily criticized by more traditionally minded scholars, especially for their use of jargon and for dehumanizing the discipline, the basic...

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