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Overview

anti-urbanism

An intellectual current and strand of social science writing which is critical of the city as a social form. Negative attitudes to urbanization—and the ‘pastoral myth’ of the ...

Baltics

Baltics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Armin . Die Burgen in Estland und Lettland . Tartu, Estonia: Dorpater Estnischer Verlag, 1942. Urban, William . The Livonian Crusade . 2d ed. Chicago: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, 2004. Urban, William . Tannenberg and After: Lithuania, Poland, and the Teutonic Order in Search of Immortality . 3d ed. Chicago: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, 2003. Urban, William . The Teutonic Knights: A Military History . London: Greenhill Books, 2003. Anti...

anti-urbanism

anti-urbanism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
308 words

...presumed breakdown of traditional communities in urban societies was a powerful theme in the work of Auguste Comte , Frédéric Le Play , and Émile Durkheim . More specifically, anti-urbanism affected the development of rural and urban sociology : Ferdinand Tönnies 's suggestion that cities were prime locations for Gesellschaftlich (instrumental and associational) social relations was developed by Georg Simmel (‘The Metropolis and Mental Life’, 1903) , whose work strongly influenced the Chicago urban sociologists. Raymond Williams ( The Country and...

anti-urbanism

anti-urbanism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An intellectual current and strand of social science writing which is critical of the city as a social form. Negative attitudes to urbanization—and the ‘pastoral myth’ of the countryside—predate the ...
Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...increase in the size of the provincial manufacturing and commercial cities, London remained the giant metropolis, almost too vast to comprehend, and the setting still (as in so much of Dickens) of novels of social concern. Indeed, London's dominant role in the literature of anti-urbanism was never fully displaced. But urbanization is not in itself the major preoccupation of those concerned with the social repercussions of industrialization. The argument has always revolved around the rise of disruptive new patterns of work, the *factory system , and...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...since the Union. Secondly, on the middling people, especially urban élites, who are now recognized as the main progenitors of patriotism, quick to appreciate its possibilities as a community-building force in an age of unparalleled urban growth and disorder. In the towns, patriotism, while the war lasted, was added to *philanthropy as a mode of government, the means by which towns could define themselves and town populations could be unified and ordered. As in Scotland, patriotism in its urban setting was used to secure identities that were seen to need...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...radicalism in the mid-1790s: radical aims were satirized in at least one anti-Jacobin dystopia, John *Reeves 's Publicola: A Sketch of the Times ( 1810 ). Equally important was the publication of the most important modern anti-utopian tract, Thomas *Malthus 's Essay on Population ( 1798 ). Here Godwin was a special target, and vice, in the form of the seemingly inextinguishable desire to procreate, triumphed over virtually every proposal for assisting the poor. Some apocalyptic anti-utopias were constructed with Malthus's ideas partially in mind. The...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...need arose, moreover, ritual was flexible enough to evolve both its content and its meanings over time, not least when traditional rural practices had to be adapted to unprecedented urban conditions (see Charles Phythian‐Adams , ‘Milk and Soot: The Changing Vocabulary of a Popular Ritual in Stuart and Hanoverian London’, in D. Fraser and A. Sutcliffe (eds), The Pursuit of Urban History (1983) ). Social customs may be broadly categorized according to their personal, group, or communal observance. Personal or interpersonal customs clearly tended to involve...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for political reform. Initially, most of the supporters of parliamentary reform also came from the urban middle classes, but by the 1790s significant numbers of skilled artisans had been recruited and after 1815 the majority of rank-and-file reformers were workers in industry and commerce. Only intermittently did radicalism extend into a popular movement. Throughout all periods the reform movement received its greatest support from the major urban and commercial or industrial areas of the country: from in and around London, the industrial areas of the...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as ghosts, spirits, and witches. Clare himself was always unpersuaded by the attempts of *Enlightenment [32] philosophers to explain away as natural phenomena the flickering lights of ‘will-o'-the-wisps’ and similar mysterious spirits; in this respect he echoed the anti-Newtonianism of his urban counterpart William *Blake . While walking Blake's ‘charter'd streets’ in the 1820s, Clare could not even bring himself to go down Chancery Lane at night for fear of ‘thin death like shadows and goblings with sorcer eyes’. He recalled, too, how his father, Parker...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...capitalist growth resurfaced, an argument made through rhetoric and practical resistance, and which had begun in the seventeenth century with the interventions of the Diggers and Gerrard Winstanley ( fl. 1648–52 ). An alternative version of improvement was espoused in the urban artisan movement of radical *agrarianism , gathered around Thomas *Spence 's programme for the redistribution of the wealth derived from farming. Other, less far-reaching critiques of capitalist improvement encompassed Oliver Goldsmith 's ( ?1730–74 ) sentimental regret and ...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...word throughout Britain—often at risk to himself. Abolition was above all else a brilliant propaganda campaign which used the printed word and a host of graphic and material images to broadcast the horrors of the slave trade. In a society already marked by the drift to urban life, by the early shift in key areas to industrial change (notably in Manchester), and by ever more people able to purchase more and more goods, the British people were in a state of remarkable flux, and prone to change or adopt new ideas. The abolitionist groups which flowered...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...prose fiction. Meanwhile, anti-Jacobin writers like T. J. *Mathias had begun to put pressure upon the hitherto unproblematic category of ‘literature’ by issuing widely read and reprinted demands that it expose its political and national allegiances. His polemic in the voluminous footnotes to the satiric poem The Pursuits of Literature ( 1794–8 ) campaigned to discredit the progressive political and intellectual culture sustained by the later Enlightenment reviewers and the circles of Godwin and Joseph *Johnson . Though these anti-Jacobin intellectuals...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...stimulating the passion for enjoyment, could also endanger fertility. At mid-century, British businessmen had long recognized the personal value of cultivating refinement. Clubs and societies had been established to encourage values of consideration, sociability, and charity. The urban historian Peter Borsay notes that the charity of male associations was thought to improve ‘the social environment, making it a better place in which to trade, sell, borrow, and lend’. Civic leaders combined subscription with the exercise of political will to make streets,...

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire

Transitions and Trajectories: Jews and Christians in the Roman Empire   Reference library

Barbara Geller

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
14,334 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...it is likely that the Jews of Mesopotamia, newly annexed by Rome, participated in an anti-Roman rebellion that began in 116. It was suppressed by another of Trajan's leading commanders, Lusius Quietus, who was awarded with an appointment as the first consular legate of Judea. Quietus also took steps to suppress unrest among the Palestinian Jewish population. This unrest probably in turn contributed to the outbreak of the third and final major Jewish anti-Roman rebellion, the war of Bar Kokhba. This uprising centered in southern Judea, the...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to convert the British Isles, and particularly those among its inhabitants whom the regular forms of Christian worship were failing to reach. Much of his success has been interpreted as a response to the failure of the Church of England to adapt to the titanic new forces of urban power and *industrialization [14] during this period. Among Latitudinarians, and perhaps more among austere civic Anglicans concerned with church discipline in country parishes, Wesley's brand of religion came to be dismissed or reviled as *enthusiasm , the sense of direct...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...part of those legislators: there are good reasons why such an improvement did not and could not inform the expectations of a whole generation of people still strongly conditioned by pre-industrial circumstances. Recognition that British prosperity was increasingly dependent on urban manufacturing pursuits that made use of newly recruited work forces and innovative forms of machinery was entirely compatible with scepticism as to whether these expanding employments would be capable of surmounting various limitations posed by the predominantly land-using...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Stark 's ( 1770–1813 ) Lunatic Asylum in Glasgow ( 1809–11 ), thought to be the first British asylum built on a radiating plan. At another social level, the increasing prosperity of Britain's middle orders engendered a remarkable new architecture of leisure. Especially in the urban centres of the provinces there appeared numerous athenaeums, libraries, newsrooms, academies, museums, theatres, hotels, and art galleries, usually designed by prominent regional architects. In Liverpool there was John Foster I 's ( 1758–1827 ) Athenaeum (completed 1799 ), Union...

Antiquarianism (Popular)

Antiquarianism (Popular)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,164 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the peepshows, processions, and dramas of medieval London), The Everyday Book ( 1826–7 , dedicated to * Lamb , with contributions by * Clare ), and The Table Book ( 1827–8 , a second massive compilation). Appropriately enough, it was this down-market publisher who gave the urban crowd the concept of a popular cultural history. When first-generation Romantic poets are picked off for individual study, they are removed from their exceptional environment—a new literary culture which was both old and self-consciously fashioned by figures such as Hone, Douce,...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Like the anti-poor law campaigners of the 1830s, they attacked the new workhouses, often called bastilles, which punished poverty as a crime and denied the rights of the poor to subsistence, now seen as founded on religious not customary authority; ‘dwell in the land and verily thou shalt be fed’ was a popular banner text carried in large demonstrations. Segregated by sex and by age, the workhouses also dissolved the sacred bonds of marriage (‘None but he who rules the thunder/shall put man and wife asunder’) and violated God's anti-Malthusian...

Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel

Forging an Identity: The Emergence of Ancient Israel   Reference library

Lawrence E. Stager

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
19,872 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

... Urban Imposition As we have seen, soon after the arrival of the first generation of new immigrants, the Philistines successfully sited their five major cities, taking maximum advantage of their military, economic, and political potential. The urban tradition embodied in their cities differed from the Canaanite patterns they replaced, and the details of their urban planning provide additional reasons for concluding that the Philistines...

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