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anti-Semitism

Subject: Literature

Hostility towards and discrimination against Jewish people (although there are other Semitic peoples, notably the Arabs, anti‐Semitism is only used to refer to prejudice against Jewish ...

anti‐Semitism

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Lincoln Allison

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
231 words

...‐Semitism Literally, persecution of or discrimination against the Jews. The first use of the term, which came into being in the 1870s, is variously attributed to the German Wilhelm Marr and the Frenchman Ernest Renan. In one respect it was a misnomer from the beginning since, in the jargon of the racial theory of the period, ‘Semites’ were a broad group of non‐European ethnic groups including Arabs, whereas antiSemitism was taken to mean, and has continued to mean, an anti‐Jewish racism. AntiSemitism differs from the anti‐Jewish ideas and theories which...

anti‐Semitism

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
176 words

...‐Semitism Hostility towards and discrimination against Jewish people (although there are other Semitic peoples, notably the Arabs, antiSemitism is only used to refer to prejudice against Jewish people). In the late 19th and early 20th centuries it was strongly evident in France, Germany, Poland, Russia, and elsewhere, many Jewish emigrants fleeing from persecution or pogroms in south‐east Europe to Britain and the USA. After World War I early Nazi propaganda in Germany encouraged antiSemitism, alleging Jewish responsibility for the nation’s defeat. By...

anti-Semitism

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The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
197 words

...-Semitism is sometimes treated as a continuous history of prejudice and discrimination extending from the desecration of the Second Temple in 135 bc through to the Holocaust. But in Hellenistic times the Gentiles, who were engaged in commerce, persecuted the Jews, who were farmers. As the official religion of medieval Europe, Christianity, originally a Jewish sect, legitimated a pattern of persecution by reclassifying the Jews as ‘usurers’ and ‘Christ murderers’. Modern anti-Semitism has underwritten the political vision of movements portraying...

anti-Semitism

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A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
720 words

...anti-Semitism Modern anti-Semitism (since 1870s) Whilst Christian hostility towards Jews dates back to the first century, modern anti-Semitism denotes hostility towards the Jewish race or, more popularly, towards Jewish culture and traditions. Its origins go back to the late 1870s, when earlier, sporadic outbreaks of anti-Jewish feelings became a permanent phenomenon in European society. In the writings of early anti-Semites, such as the German Wilhelm Marr or the Frenchman Ernest Renan, Jews were identified as a separate race. From this perspective, even if...

Anti-Semitism

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Leonard Dinnerstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Congress, and the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B’nai B’rith monitored incidents of anti-Semitism and sought legislation minimizing its impact. The AJ Committee also engaged in extensive study on the causes of anti-Semitism, worked behind the scenes with elected political officials, and sponsored uplifting radio programs designed to present Jews in a favorable light. The AJ Congress actively challenged existing institutional prejudices through the legal system, and the ADL both engaged in serious research on the causes of anti-Semitism and sought media...

Anti-Semitism

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A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
187 words

...-Semitism Hatred of Jews or unreasonable prejudice against them; a term coined in 1875 but with the reality behind it going back virtually to the beginnings of Judaism itself and culminating in the Nazi persecution of the Jews and the Holocaust in which six million Jews perished. Anti-Semitism has assumed various forms. Greek and Latin authors ridiculed the Jewish religion and the Jews who adhered to it either because the Jews were ‘atheists’ in refusing to acknowledge the Greek and Roman deities, or because they thought of themselves as superior. The...

Anti-Semitism.

Anti-Semitism.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
850 words

...Congress, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai B'rith monitored incidents of anti-Semitism and sought legislation minimizing its impact. The AJ Committee also engaged in extensive study on the causes of anti-Semitism, worked behind the scenes with elected political officials, and sponsored uplifiting radio programs designed to present Jews in a favorable light. The AJ Congress actively challenged existing institutional prejudices through the legal system, while the ADL both engaged in serious research on the causes of anti-Semitism and sought media...

Anti-semitism

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
194 words

...cent. Anti-Semitic feelings did not disappear then, however, as is illustrated by the Dreyfus case in France in 1894 , the pronouncements of Richard Wagner in Germany, the circulation of such spurious works as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion , and the huge numbers of Jews who emigrated to the United States to escape the pogroms of E. Europe, culminating in the Holocaust . The foundation of the state of Israel was believed by Zionists to be the only solution to anti-Semitism, but as a result of the Arab-Israeli conflict, Muslim anti-Semitism is...

Anti-Semitism

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Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,698 words
Illustration(s):
1

...-Semitism [ This entry includes two subentries, an overview and a discussion of anti-Semitism in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia . See also Holocaust ; Jews ; and Protocols of the Elders of Zion . ] Overview The term “anti-Semitism,” which spread rapidly in Europe in the economically troubled 1880s, was coined to describe a modern racial rather than a premodern religious hostility to Jews. The claim was that anti-Semitism represented an objective antipathy for what Jews did in the real world, as contrasted with earlier bigoted...

anti-Semitism

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Martin David Goodman

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
311 words

...-Semitism ( pagan ) Modern accounts of hostility to Jews in classical antiquity have often been complicated by a concern to relate pagan anti-Semitism to the anti-Judaism of some early Christians and to the history of anti-Semitism in more recent times. A literary tradition hostile to Jews and Judaism can be traced back to Greek writers in Egypt from the 3rd cent. bc . The social, cultural and political background to anti-Jewish invective cannot always be discerned, but it has been plausibly argued that propaganda aimed at Jews after the attack on the...

anti-Semitism

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Norman Davies

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...-Semitism is not a concept on which there can be any general consensus. Its dictionary meaning, ‘hatred of Jews’, gives only limited guidance, since the term is used to refer to a very wide range of attitudes, from petty prejudice to genocide. Many Jewish authors maintain that anti-Semitism is a unique phenomenon, that the Final Solution during the Second World War was the culmination of 2,000 years of Christian anti-Semitism. Religious, political, economic, social, and racial categories of anti-Semitism are often distinguished. Other commentators, in...

Anti‐Semitism

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The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,569 words

...‐Semitism . AntiSemitism has become the term commonly used for attitudes and actions against Jews. It was coined in the 1870s by the German agitator Wilhelm Marr in the campaign to eradicate Jewish influences in German culture. Sometimes the valid distinction is made between antiSemitism as a secular term built on racial and cultural thinking out of the Enlightenment, and anti‐Judaism as the earlier theologically grounded forms of contempt for Jews and things Jewish. Not least with the contemporary Arab‐Israeli conflict, the term antiSemitism is a sign...

Anti-Semitism

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The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
571 words

...-Semitism . Anti-Semitism in the United States has been characterized not so much by the violence of Russian pogroms or a Holocaust as by an ambivalent attitude toward Jews. This attitude, which stems in part from America's ideals of tolerance and religious freedom, has been evident since the first Jews arrived in New Amsterdam in 1654 . The ambivalence has revealed itself in stereotyping as well as in exclusionary practices, such as the scheduling of school exams on Jewish holy days. Since the middle of the nineteenth century, overt anti-Semitism has...

anti-Semitism

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Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
877 words

...in acknowledging his anti-Semitism, have often attributed the prejudice to his origins as a Polish Catholic and member of the landed gentry, as if all Poles were somehow ‘naturally’ anti-Semitic. Baines, for example, noted that Conrad ‘sometimes showed signs of the anti-Jewish prejudice so widespread among Eastern Europeans’ (374). Bernard C. Meyer , the most prominent of Conrad’s psychoanalytic biographers , adapts the theory of Conrad’s ‘betrayal’ of his Polish homeland as grounds for suggesting that his anti-Semitism had nothing necessarily to do...

Anti-Semitism

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The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,367 words

...of the term “anti-Semitism” by Wilhelm Marr in 1879 suggested that opposition was being registered to racial characteristics rather than religious beliefs. Secular racial anti-Semitism has never really been anything other than antagonism to Jews. The myth of Jewish biological inferiority justified the continuing attacks in a more secular age because evils in society supposedly were traceable to the presence of the Jewish race. The argument of biological differences marks the emergence of the genocidal strain in modern anti-Semitism. The world, it was...

Anti-Semitism

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The Oxford Companion to German Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,802 words

...right, there was another upsurge of anti-Semitism in Germany. The murder of Walther Rathenau in 1922 took place just when Hitler was drafting his programme for his new party, the NSDAP . Various other nationalistic associations and the German Christlichsoziale Partei also propagated anti-Semitism; but Hitler's ideology, expounded in Mein Kampf ( 1925–6 ), was unique in its virulent combination of racism with expansionist nationalism. His political argument proceeded from what was one of the standing clichés in anti-Semitic journalism in Vienna, the...

Anti-Semitism

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The Oxford Companion to Crime and Mystery Writing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
803 words

...a Jewboy. Always.” LeVine replies, “The Germans could use you.” Anti-Semitism is a significant theme in Hollywood and LeVine ( 1975 ) in which LeVine travels to Hollywood to help out a boyhood friend, a screenwriter who has been politically blacklisted. However, when Bergman has Humphrey Bogart get involved in the case, the possibility of serious discussion of anti-Semitism becomes lodged in the absurd. During the 1980s and 1990s, Faye Kellerman regularly addressed the problem of anti-Semitism. Her series detective, Peter Decker, meets an orthodox Jew, Rina...

anti-Semitism

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A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
491 words

...increasing reluctance. In Matt. 27: 25 the crowd exclaim, ‘His blood be on us and on our children’, which has been used as a particular provocation for anti-Semitism down the ages: but Matthew's implausible allegation that ‘the whole nation’ was present (an impossibility!) in the * praetorium is a good reason for regarding the cry as unhistorical. Moreover in its context the cry does not amount to anti-Semitism in the modern sense of an attack upon the Jewish race as such. Matthew's community perhaps suffered persecution from Jews who disputed the Christian...

Anti-Semitism

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Jonathan Z. S. Pollack

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...-Semitism Anti-Semitism in the social history of the United States has been a fringe ideology. Nonetheless, from colonial times to the twenty-first century, anti-Semitism has sprung from three consistent sources: Christian beliefs, economic fears, and xenophobia. The creation of the modern state of Israel was a more recent trigger for anti-Semitic beliefs. Colonial Era through 1920 .From 1654 to 1881 , although Jews generally represented less than 1 percent of the population, Christian beliefs and suspicion of Jewish business practices led to...

anti-Semitism

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
340 words

...-Semitism Though the 19th-century term ‘ anti-Semitism ’ was unknown in the MA, many themes of anti-Jewish sentiment have their genesis in medieval western Christendom. While the medieval perceptions originate in classical Christian doctrine and teachings concerning the Jews, for example their enmity to Christ and their responsibility for his death, the special circumstances of western Christendom and its Jewish minority led to the elaboration of a series of anti-Jewish allegations that have become part of western folklore ever since. Key elements among these...

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