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animal

Animal Farm a fable (1945) by George Orwell which consists of a satire on Russian Communism as it developed under Stalin. The animals of the farm, led by the pigs, revolt against the cruel ...

animal economics

animal economics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Animal Behaviour (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
184 words

... economics The application of economic principles to animal behaviour. The animal is treated as a consumer, as in human microeconomics. It is assumed that the animal is a * rational decisionmaker, maximizing * utility (or an equivalent) and spending time and energy in a way that parallels the expenditure of time and money by humans. The animal's * budget , or limit to expenditure, of energy or time, constrains its behaviour. Thus an animal cannot devote more energy to an activity than it has available at the time. Nor can it devote more time than is...

animal

animal   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
47 words

... no such animal used to express the idea that nothing of the type mentioned exists. informal 🅘 The phrase appears to have originated in the caption to a cartoon in Life magazine in 1907 , in which someone is looking at a camel. party animal : see party...

animal

animal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
366 words

... See also classification of animals . For purposes of civil liability in England, animals are classified as belonging to a dangerous or a nondangerous species (Animals Act 1971). A dangerous species is one not commonly domesticated in the British Isles, fully grown members of which are likely to cause severe damage. The keeper of an animal of a dangerous species is strictly liable for any damage it causes. Liability for damage done by other animals arises either under the Animals Act, if the animal was known by its keeper to have characteristics not...

animal

animal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
89 words

... A multicellular, heterotrophic organism that develops from an embryo derived from gametes produced in specialized organs or surrounded by somatic cells. Typically, animals are motile , at least during some stage of the life cycle, and have sensory apparatus with which to detect changes in their immediate environment. Protozoa are unicellular but otherwise resemble animals in many ways (although there are plant-like protozoons) and were formerly classified as an animal phylum; they are now more usually classified in the kingdom Protoctista . See...

animal

animal   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
199 words

... . Although in its widest sense the term ‘animal’, as contrasted with vegetable and mineral, includes mankind, in common usage the term is restricted to ‘lower’ or non-human animals—the ‘brutes’ or ‘beasts’. For Descartes (whose Discourse on Method , 1637 , examines the difference between men and beasts), the crucial point is that animals lack language: their ‘utterances’ are always elicited by a specific stimulus, and thus can never amount to genuine speech. It follows, on Descartes's view, that animals lack thought, and that their behaviour can be...

animal

animal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
122 words

...stimuli. Animal cells lack the cellulose cell walls of plant cells. Molecular systematics now includes animals in the opisthokonts , a eukaryote assemblage that also contains the fungi. For a simplified classification of animals, see...

animal

animal   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
153 words

... Living organism of the animal kingdom, usually distinguishable from members of the plant kingdom by its power of locomotion (at least during some stage of its existence); a well-defined body shape; limited growth; its feeding exclusively on organic matter; the production of two different kinds of sex cells; and the formation of an embryo or larva during the developmental stage. Higher animals, such as the vertebrates , are easily distinguishable from plants, but the distinction becomes blurred with the lower forms. Some one-celled organisms could easily...

animal

animal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,184 words

...of the world, while animals, plants, and things stand apart, at varying degrees of distance from the world. Interestingly enough, Heidegger wavers over the specific question of an animal world, arguing at times that animals are “worldless” ( weltlos ) and at others that they are merely “poor or lacking in world” ( weltarm ). Nonetheless, without language, an animal's relation to things in the world is, in Heidegger's words, like words that have been crossed out. The animal world is thus represented as a world under erasure. That is, animals experience things...

Animal

Animal   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Animal Farm A satire in fable form by George orwell , published in 1945 , and depicting a totalitarian regime like that of the Soviet Union under stalin . The story describes how the pigs, by cunning, treachery and ruthlessness, come to dominate the more honest, gullible and hardworking animals. Their ultimate slogan is: ‘All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.’ The leader of the pigs is Napoleon, representing Stalin. See also boxer ; first lines in fiction . Animals in Christian art Some animals are appropriated to...

animal

animal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Any member of the animal kingdom (Animalia), which comprises all multicellular eukaryotes that are motile heterotrophs and that lack rigid cell walls; most (but not sponges) have differentiated tissues forming muscles, nerve cells, etc., and most reproduce sexually. The kingdom includes sponges, sea anemones, corals and other marine organisms, worms, insects, spiders, crustaceans, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and...

ANIMAL

ANIMAL   Reference library

Natalie Depraz

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
3,360 words

...genus.” “Animal” is in fact the most common translation of Tier , whether we are dealing with a Haustier (domestic animal, pet), a Pelztier (fur-bearing animal), a Zugtier (draft animal), or a Reittier (saddle animal). We also speak of the “animal kingdom” ( Tierreich ), the “small animal” ( Tierchen ), and even of “animality” ( Tiernatur , tierisches Wesen ). But the latent Latin root is also used to translate the noun “animality” ( Animalität ) and the corresponding adjective ( animalisch ). In French, there are only two words, animal and bête...

Animal Adjectives

Animal Adjectives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
491 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... Adjectives . If you have an English–Latin dictionary, look up any animal to find the corresponding Latin term. Then look up that term in an unabridged English-language dictionary and you’re likely to find an English adjective—perhaps rare, but there nevertheless—ending in -ine . Some of these, of course, are well known: asinine = of, relating to, or like an ass (donkey) bovine = of, relating to, or like a cow canine = of, relating to, or like a dog elephantine = of, relating to, or like an elephant equine = of, relating to, or like a horse feline = of,...

animal black

animal black   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... black A paint derived from animal products such as...

feral animal

feral animal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
20 words

...feral animal Any domesticated animal, such as a dog or a cat, that has returned to live in wild...

animal psychology

animal psychology n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... psychology n. The study of animal behaviour through laboratory experimentation. See also comparative psychology . Compare ethology...

animal cruelty

animal cruelty   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
78 words

... cruelty Most of the legislation regarding cruelty to animals has been repealed and replaced by the Animal Welfare Act 2006 . The act applies to normally domesticated animals and other animals kept in captivity. The Act creates a basic offence of causing unnecessary suffering and specific offences regarding docking dogs’ tails, mutilation, administering poisons, and causing animals to fight. It lays down the responsibilities of owners of animals and regulates transfer to children under the age of...

Animal Model

Animal Model   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Animal Model A study in a group of laboratory animals that uses conditions of animals analogous to conditions of humans to model processes comparable to those that occur in humans. 64 See also experimental epidemiology ; pathophysiology . ...

animal pole

animal pole   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
16 words

... pole that pole of an egg which contains the most cytoplasm and the least...

animal welfare

animal welfare   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Agriculture and Land Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
125 words

... welfare The well-being of animals. Comprehensive guidance exists for what constitutes good animal welfare, and the majority of legislation generated to ensure acceptable standards of animal welfare stems from the five freedoms that were originally generated in 1965 by the British Government. Minimum standards exist for the housing, husbandry, and handling of animals to which keepers of commercial, pet, domestic, and exotic animals must all comply, with penalties including prison sentences for those who break the law. Assessments of animal welfare are...

animal studies

animal studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... studies An emerging interdisciplinary field of study focused on animal–human relations and interactions broadly understood. The ‘animal turn’, as it is sometimes referred to, involves the ethical reflection upon non-human animals, across disciplines, in contrast to the anthropocentric focus of the humanities. Drawn from philosophy, animal studies has grown to encompass work in the social sciences and the humanities. Peter Singer’s 1975 book Animal Liberation , which argues for veganism and against the ‘speciesism’ of privileging humans over animals,...

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