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anaesthesia, awareness under

Awareness under anaesthesia appears to be an uncommon event when measured conventionally, i.e. as recall by the patient of events that happened during surgery. Sebel et al. (2004) found an ...

anaesthesia, awareness under

anaesthesia, awareness under   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,244 words

..., awareness under Awareness under anaesthesia appears to be an uncommon event when measured conventionally, i.e. as recall by the patient of events that happened during surgery. Sebel et al. ( 2004 ) found an incidence of awareness during general anaesthesia of 0.13%, just over one per thousand adult patients, or approximately 26 000 cases per year in the United States. The incidence of awareness is higher in children, at 0.8% ( Davidson et al. 2005 ). Awareness under anaesthesia can be devastating, especially when accompanied by pain. A common...

anaesthesia, awareness under

anaesthesia, awareness under  

Awareness under anaesthesia appears to be an uncommon event when measured conventionally, i.e. as recall by the patient of events that happened during surgery. Sebel et al. (2004) found an ...
anaesthesia and consciousness

anaesthesia and consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,700 words
Illustration(s):
3

...technique involves the commonplace use of drugs that cause muscle paralysis. Paralysed patients are rendered unable to move and thus can appear anaesthetized, yet can (on rare occasions) remain conscious. This awareness during anaesthesia is often the most traumatic and horrific experience of a person's life ( see anaesthesia, awareness under ). Thus, anaesthetists would like to have a monitor of consciousness. Currently, the gold standard for assessing consciousness during surgery is the isolated forearm technique ( IFT ). In this technique, a...

animal consciousness: dolphins

animal consciousness: dolphins   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,903 words

...a long period of exposure the chimp began to attend to its mirror image in ways that suggested it understood that it was viewing its own image and not that of another chimpanzee. Gallup's definitive test was to place a coloured mark on the forehead of a chimp while it was under anaesthesia. When the chimp recovered and once again approached the mirror, it attempted to wipe the mark off of its forehead, thereby demonstrating MSR. Until recently, the only animals that passed the mark test were the great apes. Lesser primates failed this test, as did all other...

mirror test

mirror test   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,566 words

...variable in testing for self‐recognition. The test involves four distinct phases. First, the individual is exposed to a mirror to establish baseline recognition and familiarity. Second, the individual is placed under anaesthesia and a mark is placed on the body in an area only observable via the mirror (e.g. the individual's forehead). The anaesthesia is used in order to eliminate all other cues that would alert the individual to the presence of the mark and therefore influence the direction of attention once in front of the mirror. The mark is meant to be...

out‐of‐body experience

out‐of‐body experience   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,574 words

...; anaesthesia, awareness under ; body image and body schema ; hallucination ; illusions ; self‐consciousness ; self, philosophical perspectives ; self scientific perspectives ; subjectivity Olaf Blanke Blackmore, S. J. (1982). Beyond The Body. An Investigation of Out‐of‐Body Experiences . Blanke, O. and Metzinger, T. (2009). ‘ Full‐body illusions and minimal phenomenal selfhood ’. Trends in Cognitive Science , 13. —— and Mohr, C. (2005). ‘ Autoscopic phenomena of neurological origin. Implications for corporal awareness and self...

V1 and visual consciousness

V1 and visual consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
4,231 words
Illustration(s):
1

...V1 responses is consistent with the proposal that delayed feedback interactions with V1 are important for visual awareness. It should be noted that stimulus‐driven activity can often be found in V1 and extrastriate areas, despite lack of awareness. Neural responses can sometimes be observed for visually masked stimuli or rapid unperceived flicker, and are commonly observed during anaesthesia. Thus, activity in V1 alone is insufficient for awareness, as is true for extrastriate areas. Both hierarchical and interactive models agree that the feedforward component...

brain

brain   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,167 words

...debated. What is clear is that even under conditions with no sensory input, many brain areas can be strongly activated. Examples of such situations include *sleep and *anaesthesia . It can be argued that brain activity during non‐dream sleep and anaesthesia is not correlated with conscious percepts. Thus, the study of brain activation during these states can provide interesting insights into the neuronal correlates of consciousness. In general, these studies (and many other such studies) show that humans are not aware of a large fraction of the activity in...

gamma oscillations

gamma oscillations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,806 words
Illustration(s):
5

...selection of sensory information for access to awareness and, thus, have an impact on the * contents of consciousness . Regarding the former, evidence from animal and human studies shows that neuronal synchronization in the gamma‐band covaries with arousal and is particularly prominent during epochs of higher vigilance. Moreover, gamma components of sensory evoked potentials, which indicate precise neuronal synchronization when recorded in the awake state, have been shown to disappear under deep *anaesthesia (reviewed in Engel and Singer 2001 ). A...

consciousness, modern scientific study of

consciousness, modern scientific study of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
4,955 words

...intelligence (defined narrowly as, say, to ability to solve complex problems in flexible ways) yet lack awareness. Nevertheless, a number of authors (such as Kurzweil , Aleksander , Holland , and Franklin ) have begun to reflect on the conditions in which an artificial system might exhibit some form of awareness. This emerging field is known as machine consciousness . It faces the daunting problem of establishing criteria for the presence of awareness—an issue that is perhaps best addressed in precisely the way that *Turing addressed the problem of...

re‐entrant processing

re‐entrant processing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,190 words

...hierarchy than V1, this implies that feedback from MT to V1 is necessary for motion awareness ( Pascual‐Leone and Walsh 2001 ). Feedforward activation of neurons can still be recorded in * anaesthetized animals, with RF tuning properties that hardly differ from those in the awake animal. Manifestations of re‐entrant processing, in particular those contextual modulations that express aspects of perceptual organization, are however fully suppressed under anaesthesia (Lamme et al. 1998 ). Something similar has been found in awake monkeys as well: a...

delirium

delirium   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,455 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by perception usually associated with beliefs that have undergone some scrutiny and have been modified by ideas generally associated with consciousness rather than consistent and severe delirious states. In most cases of anosognosia the patient has suffered hemiplegia and hemi-anaesthesia following a stroke, but in a minority the lesions are in the left, or non-dominant, hemisphere. Most of these patients are left-handed. On examination, if asked to lift his paralysed left arm, the patient will lift his right arm instead. When attention is drawn to his...

sleep

sleep   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,210 words

...nuclei). The alternation of sleep and wakefulness is under the influence of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian pacemaker which is synchronized to daylight and is also controlled by posterolateral orexin/hypocretin neurons. Lesions of these various structures can lead to insomnia or hypersomnia (as described by Von Oeconomo after the 1927 influenza epidemics), to unstable sleep/wakefulness cycles (as in narcolepsy), or to coma ( see brain damage ; see also anaesthesia and consciousness ). In humans, periods of regular or ‘non‐REM’...

medicine

medicine   Reference library

Mark Harrison

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...be applied sulphonamide (later penicillin) powder or cream, and the burns covered with a bandage dressing which was floated off in a subsequent bath. Great strides were also made in anaesthesia—which had progressed relatively slowly in peacetime—with the introduction of ‘closed-circuit’ or ‘local’ anesthesia and of new anaesthetics, given intravenously and orally. Local anaesthesia revolutionized thoracic surgery in the combat zone and paved the way for the inception of cardiac surgery after the war. Wartime medical research illustrates the trend, evident since...

Trauma

Trauma   Reference library

Margaret Iversen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,974 words
Illustration(s):
1

...mainly found photographic images from magazines, newspapers, books, and family albums. The images, which he arranges on large panels, are mostly banal and many allude to the “economic miracle” of postwar Germany. Benjamin Buchloh understands these images as agents of “psychic anaesthesia”: this reading seems justified because, beside the banal panels, there are a few displaying horrific photographs of the Nazi death camps. Richter has insisted that he is unable to use photographs of the camps as the basis for his photo-paintings. Yet, this prohibition against...

culture

culture   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
37,999 words

...School under its enlightened principal, Frances Newbery. Duncan Macmillan 19. age of industry (1843–1914): medicine Victorian medicine ( see also health, famine, and disease: 3 ) is characterized not only by a rapid expansion of medical knowledge, but also by a significant increase in medicine's ability to cure disease and a vast improvement in surgical practice. Particularly after 1870 , medicine began to benefit from advances in other sciences, especially bacteriology. Surgery was revolutionized by the development of general anaesthesia and of...

reportable death

reportable death   Reference library

Australian Law Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
193 words

...in hospital do not require investigation, but if they occur during invasive medical procedures, surgery, or anaesthesia, or shortly afterwards, or as a result of those procedures, they are reportable. Deaths of vulnerable people in special categories ( see protected person ) are also reportable. Other deaths that are reportable because they might involve suspicious circumstances are those occurring shortly after or as a result of treatment given under a medical power of attorney , or where no death certificate has been...

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