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Overview

al-Qaeda

Subject: Religion

A network of Islamic fundamentalist groups, founded in 1988 and associated with the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. The name comes from Arabic, meaning literally ‘the ...

al-Qaeda

al-Qaeda   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
148 words

...al-Qaeda Transnational terrorist organization founded by Osama bin Laden in 1988 and led since 2011 by Ayman al-Zawahiri . Al-Qaeda emerged from the groups of Arab mujahideen who fought the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 1980s. Funded by bin Laden, al-Qaeda developed bases in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan after bin Laden was expelled from Sudan in 1996 . In February 1998 , al-Qaeda issued a declaration of ‘ Jihad against Jews and Crusaders’ and undertook its first major attack against US embassies in Nairobi and Dar es-Salaam in August....

Qaeda, al-

Qaeda, al-   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
81 words

..., al- (Arabic, ‘the base’) A loose network of terrorist groups inspired by the Saudi dissident Osama Bin Laden . Groups connected to al-Qaeda were linked to a number of terrorist acts in the late 20th and early 21st century, including the devastating attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, and the Pentagon, Washington, D.C., which killed c. 2,750 people on September 11, 2001 . Al-Qaeda targets western interests that it sees as a threat to Islam. See also jihad ; ...

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of local leaders. Removal of this local support has been identified as being the key to defeating Al-Qaeda led insurgencies. As a fundamentalist Sunni group, Al-Qaeda is violently opposed to other interpretations of Islam and has been at the heart of much Muslim sectarian violence during the 21st century. The operations of Al-Qaeda in Iraq played a prominent part in the virtual civil war that erupted between Sunni and Shi'a factions during 2006–08 . Al-Qaeda actively sought to provoke and intensify this conflict through targeted attacks on mosques and...

al-Qaeda

al-Qaeda   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
534 words

...in 2011 . By 2019, al-Qaeda was no longer allied with the Taliban and was re-emerging as a separate terrorist force within Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda has a number of affiliated organizations in the Muslim world. One of the main fighting groups in the civil war that started in 2015 in Yemen is al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula ( AQAP ); in Somalia al-Shabab has extended its terror to other east African countries, most notably Kenya, where it massacred around 150 students at Garissa University in April 2015 ; in north Africa, al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb...

Qaeda, al-

Qaeda, al-   Reference library

Anatoly V. Isaenko

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,183 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Laden's organization al-Qa῾idah al-Sulbah. Long after the Soviet retreat from Afghanistan, Al-Qaeda has remained a formidable organization consisting of mujahideen of many nationalities who had previously fought with bin Laden. Many followed him to Sudan in 1991 . There bin Laden and Al-Qaeda invested in industry, road building, and a banking system and undertook export-import operations. Those businesses benefited bin Laden's organization to an extent that allowed Al-Qaeda to maintain a considerable group of terrorists. In Sudan, Al-Qaeda showed interest in...

al‐Qaeda

al‐Qaeda   Quick reference

William Maley

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
660 words

...hijacked by alQaeda operatives were deliberately flown into the Pentagon building in Washington DC and the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York, killing over 2,000 people. The direct consequence of this was ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’, a military campaign led by the US to destroy the Taliban regime and the alQaeda organization. In the former aim it was successful; Kabul fell to anti‐Taliban forces on 13 November 2001 . However, Bin Laden’s whereabouts remained unclear, as did the extent to which the activities of alQaeda had been...

al‐Qaeda

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A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
268 words

...alQaeda but to have had no formal links with the organization. Two attempted bombings of aircraft were foiled in 2009 and 2010 . The network was also active in the opposition to the military presence of Western powers in Iraq following the Iraq War , and to the democratic Iraqi government established with their support. Bin Laden was killed by US special forces in 2011 ; he was succeeded as leader by Ayman al-Zawahiri . From 2011 alQaeda participated in the Syrian civil war ( see syria ), in opposition to the Alawite Assad regime. Elements of al...

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Reference library

William Maley

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,061 words

...-Qaeda Al-Qaeda, most commonly translated into English as “The Base,” is the name of a terrorist network founded by Osama Bin Laden —“terrorist” in the sense that it uses actual violence against noncombatants for political purposes, and with a view to producing psychological effects which are disproportionate to the harm actually done. Al-Qaeda was responsible for the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States , and for many other attacks worldwide on a smaller but nonetheless significant scale. Al-Qaeda was established in the late 1980 s as the...

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Reference library

Christopher J. Fettweis

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,696 words

...cause for which al-Qaeda hoped. Indeed, the attacks on the United States turned out to be profoundly counterproductive from a strategic standpoint, and they signaled the beginning of the end of al-Qaeda's ability to function as a coherent organization. Although a number of terrorist attacks have occurred since the 9/11 attack on the United States—in Bali, Madrid, London, and elsewhere—it is not clear that any were directed from what is sometimes called “al-Qaeda central,” or its leadership nucleus. As strategists, like most terrorists, al-Qaeda's leadership...

Qaeda, al-

Qaeda, al-   Reference library

The Islamic World: Past and Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,012 words

...Qaeda, al- The terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001 , turned the spotlight on an extremist organization called al-Qaeda (Arabic for “the base”) and its leader, Osama bin Laden. This group of well-trained, mostly Arab Muslims perpetrates acts of violence against the West, particularly the United States, in an attempt to rid the Middle East and other Muslim lands of Western influence. The ultimate goal of al-Qaeda is to create a central Islamic government that represents Muslims worldwide. Volunteer Warriors. The founding of al-Qaeda has...

Qaeda, al-

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The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
117 words

...Qaeda, al- The base. Militant organization formed circa 1986 by Osama bin Laden to channel fighters and funds for the Afghan resistance movement. Became a vehicle for the declaration of international military struggle against governments and Western representatives and institutions in the Muslim world, America, and other parts of the West. Influenced by the fundamentalist worldview and militant piety of seventh-century Kharijis, Wahhabism, and contemporary Egyptian extremist movements. Allied with the Taliban regime of Afghanistan; the alliance became a...

al Qaeda

al Qaeda   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... Qaeda is preferably pronounced /al kɪ -dә/ , a fair Anglophone approximation of the Arabic pronunciation—not /al kay -dә/ . As one authority says, “When faced with two anglicizations of a foreign name, it is generally better (and more politic) to choose the one closer to the original, [and] al-KY-duh is closer to the Arabic than al-KAY-duh, which probably arose merely because Qae- suggested -KAY- to many speakers.” BBBM at 22 (with a full five-paragraph discussion of the issue). See hobson-jobsonism...

al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula

al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
102 words

...al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula ( AQAP ) Terrorist organization initially formed by Arab fighters who returned to Saudi Arabia from Afghanistan in 2002 and relaunched in Yemen in 2009 . The first iteration of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula carried out mass-casualty attacks in Saudi Arabia in 2003 and 2004 but was defeated and dismantled by Saudi security forces in 2006 . In January 2009 , members of the Saudi and Yemeni branches of al-Qaeda announced their merger into AQAP. Based in Yemen, AQAP became one of the most active and dangerous al...

al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
91 words

...al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb ( AQIM ) Terrorist organization based primarily in Algeria that aims to create an Islamic state in North Africa. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb was formed in 2007 when the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat, an Islamist militia formed towards the end of the Algerian Civil War in the 1990s, affiliated with al-Qaeda. AQIM initially attacked state institutions and Western targets in Algeria but gradually broadened its focus to sub-Saharan Africa and conducted mass-casualty attacks in Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, and...

al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb ( AQIM ) An Islamic militant movement that began activities in the late 1990s and is affiliated with al-Qaeda. Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb was founded in Algeria—aiming to overthrow the government in order to instigate an Islamic state—but also operates in the Sahara and Sahel regions. The organization was known as the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat prior to January 2007 , when it changed its name to the Organization of al-Qaeda in the Land of the Islamic Maghreb (al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, for...

Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda

Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,228 words

...ability of Al Qaeda to strike European targets. These attacks were apparently a reaction to the British and Spanish governments’ support of U.S. occupation of Iraq. Al Qaeda members have routinely shifted money around the world to bail prisoners out of jail in countries such as Algeria and Canada and to finance applications for political asylum to enable the planting of terrorist cells in western Europe. Evidence of Al Qaeda cells emerged in more than forty countries after the 9/11 attacks, as the United States investigated the extent of Al Qaeda's financial...

Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...-Qaeda a network of Islamic fundamentalist groups, founded in 1988 and associated with the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001 . The name comes from Arabic, meaning literally ‘the...

al-Qaeda

al-Qaeda   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
34 words
Al Qaeda

Al Qaeda   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
23 words
al-Qaeda

al-Qaeda   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
30 words

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