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al- Mansur

[Arabic, ‘the victorious’] The title taken by Muhammad ibn Abi Amir (938–1002), a gifted, ruthless politician who took al-Andalus to the apogee of its power but undermined the Umayyad ...

Mansur, al-

Mansur, al-   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
357 words

...turn, eliminating his most recent allies. He earned a military reputation and ran the administration from his palace (Madinat al-Zahra) while the caliph remained isolated in Córdoba’s *alcázar . In 981 , after further war and intrigue, Ibn Abi Amir adopted the honorific ‘al-Mansur’. For over twenty years, despite attempted coups in 986 and 996 , he was the political master of al-Andalus without assuming the caliphal title. Al-Mansur consolidated power with prosperity and stability as well as an ostentatious piety. Following earlier caliphal policy more...

Mansur, Moulay Ahmad al-

Mansur, Moulay Ahmad al- (1549)   Reference library

jeremy rich

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,049 words

...al-Shaikh died in 1574 , al-Mansur’s brothers Abd al-Malik and Muhammad al-Mutawakkil vied for the throne. With Ottoman aid, al-Malik drove al-Mutawakkil from Morocco. Al-Mutawakkil surrendered to Philip II of Spain. Then, the Moroccan exile received strong backing from the young Portuguese monarch Dom Sebastian, who dreamed of establishing Portuguese control over all of Morocco by ruling through al-Mutawakkil. Al-Mansur supported Abd al-Malik in the war against al-Mutawakkil and Sebastian, which culminated in the bloody Battle of Three Kings ( al-Qasir al...

Mansur, Abu Jafar al-

Mansur, Abu Jafar al- (754–75)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
50 words

...Mansur, Abu Jafar al- (r. 754–75 ) Second Abbasid caliph. Built Baghdad as the new Abbasid capital. Established a translation bureau in Baghdad, which preceded Bayt al-Hikmah (House of Wisdom). Built a powerful state apparatus based on the army and bureaucracy. Introduced institution of hisbah, overseeing public duties and...

Mansur, Abu ʿAmir al-

Mansur, Abu ʿAmir al- (938–1002)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

..., Abu ʿAmir al- ( 938–1002 ), chief minister of Córdoba . Muhammad Ibn Abi ʿAmir took the title al-Mansur bi-Allah (victorious with the aid of God) after winning campaigns against the Christian principalities of northern Spain. Born in 938 ce to a minor aristocratic family in Algeciras, al-Mansur (known to the Christians as Almanzor) studied religious law in Córdoba. Thanks to his intelligence and influence with the harem of Caliph al-Hakam II (r. 961–976 ), Ibn Abi ʿAmir became the qadi (magistrate) of Umayyad Morocco in 973 . After al-Hakam’s...

Zubayr Rahma Mansur, al-

Zubayr Rahma Mansur, al- (1830)   Reference library

m. w. daly

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
819 words

...Mansur, al- ( 1830 – 1913 ) , Sudanese merchant prince, was a Jaʾli Arab born at al-Jayli on the right bank of the main Nile about 25 miles (40 kilometers) north of Khartoum. He rose to prominence as a trader and virtually independent ruler in the hinterlands of Egypt’s African empire in the 1860s–1870s. Although the northern Sudanese had engaged in long-distance trade before the Turco-Egyptian conquest of 1820–1821 , the colonial regime’s policies, especially of taxing agriculture, drove many young men from the land and into commerce. Of these, al...

Maturidi, Abu al-Mansur al-

Maturidi, Abu al-Mansur al- (956)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
113 words

...Maturidi, Abu al-Mansur al- (d. 956 ) Major Sunni theologian. Presented new methodological schemes to address theological disputes. Believed that divine justice flows from the nature and essence of God without limiting God's freedom. Human beings are distinct from animals due to their intellect, moral sense, and awareness of freedom. His method of Quranic interpretation was based on the principle that the Quran cannot be tested by any other source and that problems do not lie within texts but are due to human confusion when reading them. Consequently,...

Ḥallāj, al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr al-

Ḥallāj, al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr al- . One of the most famous mystics of Islam, al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr al-Ḥallāj ( 857–922 ce ),was born in present-day Iran. While still young, he listened to the teachings of the Ṣūfī Sahl al-Tustarī. He then went to Baghdad and became a pupil of the celebrated mystic al-Junayd. During his life, he made three pilgrimages to Mecca and undertook many long journeys to Central Asia, and even reached the western boundaries of China. In Iraq and elsewhere he aroused the passion and the interest of his listeners through his fiery rhetoric. He...

al-Māturīdī, Abū Mansūr Muḥammad

al-Māturīdī, Abū Mansūr Muḥammad (944)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
74 words

...-Māturīdī, Abū Mansūr Muḥammad (d. 944 ( ah 333 ). Contemporary of al-Ashʿarī , and founder (like him) of an important school of orthodox, conservative theology, which admitted a place for human reason, but not a paramount one. The differences between Ashʿarites and Maturidites were reckoned as thirteen, of which the most substantial was the former's emphasis on the absolute power of the will of Allāh , and the latter's emphasis that humans have freedom and...

Mansur, Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al-

Mansur, Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- (1160–1199)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

..., Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- (c. 1160–1199 ), Almohad caliph. Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub al-Mansur (“the Victorious”) became Almohad caliph in 1184 after his father’s death. His ambition to expand his Andalusian kingdom was thwarted by the revolts in North Africa perpetrated by the new Balearic Banu Ghaniyah ruler, ʿAli, and his Berber allies. In 1188 he finally subdued the city of Gafsa, which was under Berber control. The caliph then returned to Marrakech, where he discovered rumors that members of his family were conspiring against him. This drove him to...

Al-Baghdadi, Abu Mansur ‘Abd al-Qahir b. Tahir

Al-Baghdadi, Abu Mansur ‘Abd al-Qahir b. Tahir (429)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
632 words

...-Baghdadi, Abu Mansur ‘Abd al-Qahir b. Tahir (d. 429 / 1037–8 ) Abu Mansur ‘Abd al-Qahir b. Tahir b. Muhammad al-Tamimi al-Baghdadi was born in Baghdad. His date of birth is unknown. His first teacher was his father, one of the leading scholars in Baghdad at that time. ‘Amr b. Said , Muhammad b. Jafar and Abu Bakr b. ‘Adiyy were al-Baghdadi's other teachers. Al-Baghdadi later moved to Nishapur with his father and continued his study there. He met the well-known Ash‘ari theologian Ibn Furak there. After the Turkman revolt and later Saljuq invasion of...

Thaalibi, Abu Mansur Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad al-

Thaalibi, Abu Mansur Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad al- (1038)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
107 words

...Thaalibi, Abu Mansur Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad al- (d. 1038 ) Renowned Arabic writer of the premodern era. From the Iranian province of Khurasan. Of the numerous works attributed to him, those generally considered authentic include anthologies of Arabic literature; philological discussions of grammar, lexicography, and literary tropes; and compilations of entertaining anecdotes from Islamic political and cultural history intended for the lettered society. Left a lasting mark on the history of Arabic literature through his critical literary taste, exemplified...

Qadi al-Nuʿman, Ibn Muhammad ibn Mansur al-

Qadi al-Nuʿman, Ibn Muhammad ibn Mansur al-   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
688 words

...al-Nuʿman, Ibn Muhammad ibn Mansur al- ( d. a.h. 363/974 c.e. ). Ismaʿili jurist and judge in Fatimid Egypt. Little is known of his early life, but he was either a convert to Ismaʿili Shiʿi Islam himself, or came from a recently converted family. He became the Fatimids’ most eloquent and prolific defender, serving as chief judge and as general intellectual confidant to two Fatimid caliphs, Ismaʿil al-Mansur ( r. 946–953 c.e. ) and al- Muʿizz li-Din Allah ( r. 953–975 c.e. ). It was under the latter that he gained most influence, and during his time of...

al-Hallāj, Abu ʾl–Mughīth al-Ḥusain b. Mansur

al-Hallāj, Abu ʾl–Mughīth al-Ḥusain b. Mansur (922)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
251 words

...-Hallāj, Abu ʾl–Mughīth al-Ḥusain b. Mansur (d. 922 ( ah 309 ). One of the most controversial figures in Islam: he was acclaimed as a saint by the masses and condemned as a heretic by the jurists. It is said that he was called Hallāj al-asrar (Carder of Consciences) because he could read the secret thoughts of others. He embraced the doctrine of fanā ʾ (extinction of personal consciousness) and other notions such as hulul (union and identity with God). Al-Hallāj aimed to bridge the abyss between humans and God: ‘I am He whom I love and He whom I love is...

Hallaj, Abu al-Mughith al-Husayn ibn Mansur ibn Muhammad al-

Hallaj, Abu al-Mughith al-Husayn ibn Mansur ibn Muhammad al- (922)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
102 words

...Hallaj, Abu al-Mughith al-Husayn ibn Mansur ibn Muhammad al- (d. 922 ) Persian Sufi preacher and missionary. Ideal of piety and spiritual valor in Sufi tradition and broader Islamic cultural context. Claimed to have experienced an ecstatic sense of spiritual oneness with God, declaring, “Ana al-haqq” (I am Truth [i.e., God). Claimed a religious authority greater than that of caliphs and religious scholars due to his possession of divine presence. Executed in spectacular fashion in Baghdad for heresy, with his remains cremated so that no tomb could be erected...

Mansur bi-llah ʿAbd Allah ibnʾ al-

Mansur bi-llah ʿAbd Allah ibnʾ al-   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
545 words

...Al-Mansur's legacy is highly contested in Yemen today because of the nature of his rule: his admirers see in him a paradigm of the righteous ruler, whereas his detractors argue that he was a bigoted tyrant. Al-Mansur's legal thought remains unstudied and deserving of serious research. [ See also Hadi ila l-Haqq Yahya ibn al-Husayn, al- ; Islamic Schools of Sacred Law, subentry on Shiʿi Schools: The Zaydi School of Law ; and Yemen .] Bibliography Ibn Diʿtham, Abu Firas . Al-sira al-mansuriyya . Edited by ʿAbd al-Ghani al-ʿAti . 2 vols. Beirut:Dar al...

al- Mansur

al- Mansur  

[Arabic, ‘the victorious’] The title taken by Muhammad ibn Abi Amir (938–1002), a gifted, ruthless politician who took al-Andalus to the apogee of its power but undermined the Umayyad dynasty.[...]
Abu Jafar al- Mansur

Abu Jafar al- Mansur  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(r. 754–75)Second Abbasid caliph. Built Baghdad as the new Abbasid capital. Established a translation bureau in Baghdad, which preceded Bayt al-Hikmah (House of Wisdom). Built a powerful state ...
Abu al-Mansur al- Maturidi

Abu al-Mansur al- Maturidi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 956)Major Sunni theologian. Presented new methodological schemes to address theological disputes. Believed that divine justice flows from the nature and essence of God without limiting God's ...
Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- Mansur

Abu Yusuf Ya ʿqub al- Mansur  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(c. 1160–1199), Almohad caliph.Abu Yusuf Yaʿqub al-Mansur (“the Victorious”) became Almohad caliph in 1184 after his father’s death. His ambition to expand his Andalusian kingdom was thwarted by the ...
Qadi al-Nuʿman, Ibn Muhammad ibn Mansur al-

Qadi al-Nuʿman, Ibn Muhammad ibn Mansur al-  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(d. a.h. 363/974 c.e.). Ismaʿili jurist and judge in Fatimid Egypt. Little is known of his early life, but he was either a convert to Ismaʿili Shiʿi Islam himself, or ...

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