You are looking at 1-20 of 416 entries  for:

  • All: al- Azhar x
clear all

View:

Overview

al- Azhar

Subject: Religion

Founded in 969/970, this Cairene university may have been named for the prophet Muhammad's daughter Fatimah “al-Zahra” (the brilliant), the eponymous ancestor of the Fatimids, founder of ...

Azhar, al-

Azhar, al-   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
65 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., al- (mosque, university) This imposing structure was erected by the Fatimid Muizz li-Din Allah in *Cairo in 970 to promote Shiite learning. Its reputation recovered under the Mamluks. It assumed central significance since *Egypt was prosperous, and was enlarged by the Ottomans. Minarets of al-Azhar mosque and university. © Gary Cook/Alamy Muhammad Ashraf Ebrahim Dockrat A. Nanji , ‘ Azhar ’, MedIsl vol. 1,...

Aẓhar, al-

Aẓhar, al-   Reference library

Donald Malcolm Reid

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,059 words

...al-Aẓhar to found “modern” schools, a printing press, an official journal, and Western-inspired courts. The departure of progressive Aẓharīs like Rifāʿah Rāfiʿ al-Ṭahṭāwī, Muḥammad ʿAbduh, and Saʿd Zaghlūl to work for the state reinforced al-Aẓhar’s conservatism. Beginning in 1872 , state reformers tried to overhaul al-Aẓhar, and later, competition with state-school graduates for jobs fostered a reformist minority inside al-Aẓhar. Khedive Ismāʿīl (r. 1863–1879 ) installed the first non-Shāfiʿī in 145 years as shaykh al-Aẓhar: Muḥammad al-ʿAbbāsī al...

al-Azhar

al-Azhar   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
118 words

...-Azhar (Arab., ‘the most resplendent’). One of the principal mosques in Cairo, also a centre of learning and later a university. It was founded in 969 ce by the Fāṭimid rulers of Egypt. Since they were Ismaʿīlī, al-Azhar was (for two centuries) a centre for Ismaʿīlī teaching, until the Ayyubids under Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn ( Saladin ) deposed the Fāṭimid dynasty in the late 12th cent. In the 1950s, and especially in the reform of 1961 , further expansion added facilities for a much wider range of studies (including sciences, languages, and business studies) and...

Azhar, al-

Azhar, al-   Reference library

Donald Malcolm Reid and Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,591 words

..., al- . Situated in the heart of the medieval Cairo neighborhood, al-Azhar is one of greatest mosque-universities in the world today, if not the greatest. After al-Jawhar al-Ṣiqillī began constructing al-Azhar in 970 as Cairo's official mosque, al-Azhar introduced organized instruction in 978, which makes it one of the oldest teaching universities in the world. Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn and his Ayyūbid heirs downgraded the status of al-Azhar when they restored Egypt to Sunnī Islam in 1171. Successive sultans and amīrs of the Mamlūk dynasty (1250–1517) patronized...

Azhar, al-

Azhar, al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,930 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and opening branch campuses, al-Azhar had 160,000 university students taking year-end examinations in 1990 compared with 600,000 in the state universities. Standards in both systems plunged in the face of inadequate support and overwhelming student enrollments. Al-Azhar's Preaching and Guidance section sent preachers and lecturers throughout Egypt. Al-Azhar acquired its own press. Its Majallat al-Azhar (Journal of al-Azhar, originally Nūr al-Islām , Light of Islam) was established in 1930 and its Voice of al-Azhar radio program in 1959 , and Azharī...

Azhar, al-

Azhar, al-   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
146 words

...Azhar, al- Founded in 969/970 , this Cairene university may have been named for the prophet Muhammad 's daughter Fatimah “al-Zahra” (the brilliant), the eponymous ancestor of the Fatimids, founder of Cairo. Premodern al-Azhar had no formal admissions procedures, academic departments, written examinations, grades, or degrees; the curriculum focused on Quranic exegesis, hadith, jurisprudence, grammar, rhetoric, and the sciences. The early modern period ushered in attempts to reform and modernize the university through the addition of new subjects and required...

al-Azhar

al-Azhar  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(Arab., ‘the most resplendent’).One of the principal mosques in Cairo, also a centre of learning and later a university. It was founded in 969 ce by the Fāṭimid rulers ...
al- Azhar

al- Azhar  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Founded in 969/970, this Cairene university may have been named for the prophet Muhammad's daughter Fatimah “al-Zahra” (the brilliant), the eponymous ancestor of the Fatimids, founder of Cairo. ...
38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,110 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...that would do full justice to the demands of traditional Islamic scholarship, in respect of both the shape of the text (i.e. the form of the text as it appears in the early MSS without vocalization and diacritics) and the way it was presented. The lead was taken by scholars at Al-Azhar mosque-university in Cairo, the pre-eminent seat of traditional learning in Islam. After seventeen years of preparatory work, their edition was published in 1924 , under the auspices of King Fu’ād of Egypt. It was printed orthographically in such a way that the shape of the...

Mustafa al- Maraghi

Mustafa al- Maraghi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1945)Egyptian modernist reformer and rector of al-Azhar. Called for social, legal, and educational reforms. Pursued an aggressive campaign to integrate modern sciences into al-Azhar's curriculum. ...
Shaykh al- Ṭanṭāwī

Shaykh al- Ṭanṭāwī  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Shaykh al-Ṭanṭāwī (b. 1928),whose full name is Shaykh Muḥammad Sayyid Atiyya al-Ṭanṭāwī, is the current shaykh of al-Azhar of Egypt, the highest religious authority for Sunnī Islam not only in Egypt ...
Muhammad Abu Zahra

Muhammad Abu Zahra  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1974)Conservative Egyptian public intellectual, scholar of Islamic law, and author. Educated at the Ahmadi Madrasa, the Madrasa al-Qada al-Shari, and the Dar al-Ulum, he taught at al-Azhar's ...
Abd al-Halim Mahmud

Abd al-Halim Mahmud  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1978)Egyptian Islamic leader who reasserted al-Azhar's independence from outside political control. Obtained a doctoral degree in philosophy from the Sorbonne in 1940. Appointed shaykh of ...
Dar al-Ulum

Dar al-Ulum  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Egyptian university established in 1872 to train teachers of modern subjects. Offered a mix of religious and secular subjects. Initially recruited students from the mosque-university of al-Azhar and ...
Mahmud Shaltut

Mahmud Shaltut  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1963)Egyptian religious scholar who worked to reform al-Azhar, reversing its decline and recapturing its previous role as an active participant in Egypt's educational, cultural, and political ...
Takfīr wa-al-Hijrah, Jamāʿat al-

Takfīr wa-al-Hijrah, Jamāʿat al-  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
After a group of radical Muslims in Cairo abducted and assassinated Shaykh Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-Dhahabī, a former Egyptian minister of awqāf and Azhar affairs, in July 1977, the Egyptian media ...
Ḥasan al-Bannā’

Ḥasan al-Bannā’  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1906–49).The founder and leader of al-Ikhwān al-Muslimūn in Egypt. Ḥasan al-Bannā’ studied at al-Azhar and qualified as a teacher. In 1928, he founded the al-Ikhwān at Ismaʿiliyya. He attracted ...
Jamaat al-Takfir wa'l-Hijrah

Jamaat al-Takfir wa'l-Hijrah  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Group of radical Muslims based in Cairo who abducted and assassinated Shaykh Muhammad Husayn al-Dhahabi, former Egyptian minister of awqaf (religious endowments) and Azhar affairs, in July 1977. Name ...
Mohammad Tahir ibn Jalaluddin al-Azahari

Mohammad Tahir ibn Jalaluddin al-Azahari  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1957)Reformist thinker and journalist. Born in Sumatra, lived in Mecca, and studied at al-Azhar University, Cairo. Traveled between Malaya, Riau-Lingga, Sumatra, and the Middle East as religious ...
Fadzil Mohamad Noor

Fadzil Mohamad Noor  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 2002)Malaysian thinker and religious activist. Educated at al-Azhar. Taught at the Faculty of Islamic Studies at the Technical University of Malaysia (UTM). Joined Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia ...

View: