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Overview

agrarian civilization

A society that depends on an agricultural economy, and which is therefore settled, as opposed to hunter‐gathering.

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,017 words
Illustration(s):
1

...testa reflects selection for faster germination. Maize arrived from Mesoamerica much later, approximately 800 years ago. History of Explanation Many societies have stories to explain the beginning of agriculture. Harlan ( 1995 ) presents a series of origin myths from various agrarian societies. Typically, a divine being (Isis in Egypt; Demeter in Greece; a child of the Sun, the first Inca, in the Andes; Oannes in Mesopotamia) brings agriculture to the local, impoverished savages along with a system of laws, religious practices, and the arts of “civilized”...

Human Evolution

Human Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of production. As a corrective to the unilinear schemes favored by Childe and White, the American anthropologist Julian Steward ( 1902–1972 ) proposed a theory of “multilinear evolution,” according to which certain basic types of society, such as the hunting band or the agrarian civilization, tend to develop in similar ways under similar conditions, even though “few concrete aspects of culture will appear among all groups of mankind in a regular sequence.” Within biology, meanwhile, the teleological (and often Lamarckian) theories of evolution that had...

halo

halo   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
349 words

...The halo, usually represented as a luminous figure around the head of a god or holy person, appears in the iconography of a number of religious traditions. The indigenous civilizations of Central America depict agrarian gods with golden crowns or halos, suggesting an association of the halo with the sun. This is clearest in the Inca god, Viracocha, who wears a tiara that is also a sun. In other traditions, the connection to light symbolism is much more general, pointing to intellect, knowledge, or enlightenment. Within some Mahayana Buddhist texts, for...

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