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Overview

agrarian civilization

A society that depends on an agricultural economy, and which is therefore settled, as opposed to hunter‐gathering.

agrarian civilization

agrarian civilization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... civilization A society that depends on an agricultural economy , and which is therefore settled, as opposed to hunter‐gathering...

agrarian civilization

agrarian civilization  

A society that depends on an agricultural economy, and which is therefore settled, as opposed to hunter‐gathering.
Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and insensible’ one associated with the slow growth of commerce and manufacturing against a predominantly *agrarian background [ see *agricultural revolution ]. Acting singly, this development would have been vulnerable to the ‘ordinary revolutions of war and government’. The outcome had been made more durable as a result of the unintended by-products of the shift in consumption patterns by feudal land-owners—those with legal entitlement to the agrarian social surplus. As their expenditure shifted towards the manufactured luxuries produced or imported by...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from Ruin ( 1793 ) imagined a day when the greater public virtue, resulting from *republicanism , would end the need for any system of punishment. As early as the 1780s a more collectivist strand in republicanism was being developed in the writings of Thomas *Spence , whose *agrarian utopia was founded on the nationalization of land and its management at the parish level. Spence himself participated in the revival of utopia as a literary genre that went along with this kind of political speculation. In A Supplement to the History of Robinson Crusoe (...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and a progressive property tax. His proposals were sufficiently radical (although in line with most modern welfare states) to convey to his opponents a more general sense that the right of property would not be sanctified in the event of a major political change. Moreover, his Agrarian Justice ( 1796 ), written after having escaped execution under Maximilien Robespierre and in the wake of the proto-socialist ‘Conspiracy of Equals’ led by François Babeuf in March 1796 , provided a still more radical and principled case for redistribution to meet the...

Tiberius Gracchus

Tiberius Gracchus  

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Elder brother of the preceding and son of Tiberius Sempronious Gracchus (consul 177) and Cornelia (daughter of Scipio Africanus), served at Carthage under his cousin Scipio Aemilianus, who married ...
agrarian laws and policy

agrarian laws and policy  

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Overview Page
Allocation of land by the community is attested in the Greek world at the times of new city foundations (see colonization, greek), and when land was annexed (cleruchies). There is also some evidence ...
oriental despotism

oriental despotism  

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Overview Page
A concept popularized by the German sociologist Karl Wittfogel, an early member of the Institute of Social Research at Frankfurt (See critical theory) who fled the Third Reich in 1933, and spent much ...
Gaius Sempronius Gracchus

Gaius Sempronius Gracchus  

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Younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus, served under his cousin and brother-in-law Scipio Aemilianus at Numantia. A member of his brother's land commission, he supported the plans of Marcus Fulvius ...
Roman Africa

Roman Africa  

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Overview Page
The Punic Wars made Rome heir to the Carthaginian empire. In 146 bc she left most territory in the hands of Masinissa's descendants, but formed a new province (Africa) in the most fertile part. It ...
Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, Quintus

Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, Quintus  

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As consul 233 bc celebrated a triumph over the Ligurians and unsuccessfully opposed the agrarian bill of Flaminius. He was censor 230, consul for the second time 228, and dictator (probably) 221. ...
Roman population

Roman population  

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Overview Page
There are two different kinds of question which historians might wish to ask about the population of the Roman world: how large was it or any of its constituent parts? and what were the patterns and ...
famine

famine  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
May be defined as the occurrence of serious food shortages resulting in significant rises in the death rate. Mortality during famines was rarely caused solely by starvation but from related diseases ...
Annales School

Annales School   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
268 words

...Modern World-System , 1974, 1980, and 1989 ). Critics have argued that the Annales School neglected political processes. The Annales approach has similar interdisciplinary concerns to historical materialism , the historical sociology of Max Weber in his The Agrarian Sociology of Ancient Civilisations (1924) , and the figurational sociology of Norbert Elias in The Court Society (1969)...

Agrarianism

Agrarianism   Reference library

Norman WIRZBA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
1,007 words

...become, a healthy and sustainable culture is always one that is built on healthy lands. As environmental historians have amply shown us—think of the Sumerian civilization between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that came to an end when its soils became barren (the “Fertile Crescent” is now a desert)—the wide-spread destruction of a country’s land will eventually lead to a culture’s collapse. Agrarianism represents a comprehensive philosophy and set of practices that holds together in one, synoptic vision the well-being of land and people together. It...

oriental despotism

oriental despotism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
354 words

...the emergence of centralized political authority, and is thus a significant force in the development of early civilizations. Oriental Despotism considers this thesis in relation, not only to China, but also wider Marxist arguments about the Asiatic mode of production . Wittfogel ’s work has been criticized as empirically unsound, inconsistent, ecologically determinist , and implicitly functionalist . However, his characterization of the agrarian state bureaucracy of early hydraulic societies prompted an enormous literature on state formation and class...

Xia Dynasty

Xia Dynasty (2100?–1766? bce)   Reference library

Charles C. KOLB

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...urban centers but were an agrarian people whose pottery and bronze implements have assisted prehistorians in developing more finite chronologies. During the Xia dynasty the major crafts included jade carving and casting bronze vessels, some of which were embellished with jade. The Xia also devised a calendar system that incorporated lunar and solar movements. The Xia period—dating, as explained below, from the twenty-first to the sixteenth century bce —defined a cultural stage between late neolithic cultures and the urban civilization of the Shang dynasty....

School of Living

School of Living   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
422 words

...of Living Ralph Borsodi , a vigorous critic of industrial civilization, began to advocate a back-to-the-land ethic when he and his wife left Manhattan for a rural acreage in 1920 , and his 1933 book Flight from the City was a widely read manifesto of decentralist agrarianism. His first large-scale attempt to work out a cluster of small self-sufficient acre-ages was undertaken at Dayton, Ohio, under government auspices in the 1930s, but he clashed with federal authorities and soon began a similar private project, called Bayard Lane , near Suffern, New...

Anthropocene

Anthropocene   Reference library

David CHRISTIAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
758 words

...scales for as long as 8,000 years by raising atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and methane. He suggests that these changes prevented the early return to a new Ice Age and allowed the great agrarian civilizations of human history to flourish. In other words, human activity created the global climatic conditions that allowed the world’s major agrarian civilizations to flourish during the last 5,000 years. Ruddiman’s arguments may be overstated, but even so, they suggest that the Anthropocene is not just a byproduct of modernity, but had roots many millennia...

Crèvecoeur, Michel-Guillaume-Jean de

Crèvecoeur, Michel-Guillaume-Jean de (1735–1813)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
607 words

...progress of civilization. James's encounter with luxury, slavery, and the Revolutionary War, however, displaces such idealism and testifies to Crèvecoeur's familiarity with more skeptical French intellectual traditions. James's ultimate disillusion, as well as his forced flight to a “savage wilderness,” reflect the more jaded views of the comte de Buffon , abbé Raynal , and others, that America was itself a naturally degenerate environment. In the Letters commerce and wealth introduce vice and destroy the civilization associated with agrarian ideals and...

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