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aerospace medicine

The branch of medical specialization that focuses on the health of air crews and passengers in aircraft and space vehicles and their support personnel. Aerospace medicine emphasizes ...

aerospace medicine

aerospace medicine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...aerospace medicine The branch of medical specialization that focuses on the health of air crews and passengers in aircraft and space vehicles and their support personnel. Aerospace medicine emphasizes applied physiology and physiological adaptation to changes in atmospheric pressure and gravitational forces. Exposure to volatile toxic fumes from aviation fuel is another concern. The interfaces with public health include many aspects of preventive medicine and detection and control of dangerous contagious diseases that can be transported from one country to...

aerospace medicine

aerospace medicine  

The branch of medical specialization that focuses on the health of air crews and passengers in aircraft and space vehicles and their support personnel. Aerospace medicine emphasizes applied ...
Vance Hunter Marchbanks, Jr.

Vance Hunter Marchbanks, Jr.  

(1905–88) aerospace surgeon and pioneer in aerospace medicine research, born at Fort Washikie, Washington. Marchbanks was the first African-American physician to be commissioned in the U.S. Army ...
adiabatic process

adiabatic process   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...steady-state system in which heat neither enters nor leaves a defined zone or region but ambient temperature increases as atmospheric pressure rises and decreases as atmospheric pressure falls. This accounts for temperature changes with altitude. The process is relevant in aerospace medicine , for instance in the design of high-flying passenger aircraft in which cabin air pressure helps to maintain air temperature at high altitudes as well as the atmospheric concentration of oxygen and other gases at physiologically necessary levels. ...

Marchbanks, Vance Hunter, Jr.

Marchbanks, Vance Hunter, Jr. (1905–88)   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...Vance Hunter, Jr. ( 1905–88 ) aerospace surgeon and pioneer in aerospace medicine research , born at Fort Washikie, Washington . Marchbanks was the first African-American physician to be commissioned in the U.S. Army ( 1946 ). Over his long career Marchbanks collected medical data and published articles for military manuals and research publications, focusing on human reactions to speed, noise, and altitude during jet flight. Stress tests and rating systems he developed to evaluate air crews in combat were later adapted for astronaut training....

Titanium

Titanium   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
274 words

...of Greek mythology. It is widely distributed in nature in compound forms, such as rutile and ilmenite. Titanium's special characteristics have led to its use in recent years for a wide variety of applications such as a coating and in alloys in the aerospace industry, the military, in sporting goods, medicine, dentistry, the automotive industry, and many other industrial applications. On occasion, titanium panels have been used to sheath new buildings, including the Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, designed by Frank O. Gehry ( b 1929 ) and opened in 1997 , and...

Space Program, U.S., African Americans in

Space Program, U.S., African Americans in   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,714 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Americans and as an inspiration to all those fascinated with aerospace and aviation. In 1961 the U.S. president John F. Kennedy believed that NASA needed to select an African American for its astronaut program, so Attorney General Robert Kennedy encouraged the U.S. Air Force and Navy to find a suitable candidate. In 1962 the air force selected Captain Edward Dwight , who had an aeronautical engineering degree and more than two thousand hours of jet flight time, to enroll in the Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in California...

development, science and

development, science and   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,116 words

...agricultural research institutes, EMBRAPA has been responsible for major increases in productivity in the Brazilian food industry. Military and transportation requirements have made the aerospace sector a major contributor to Brazilian exports. Here an important ideological factor came into play: for Brazilians, the inventor of the airplane was Alberto Santos-Dumont and aerospace research and development amount to recovery of a technological tradition. Other developing countries show a similar preference for practical science. India's Journal of Genetics ,...

Acronym

Acronym   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...three kinds of acronym: (1) Letter acronyms, such as NATO, radar . (2) Syllabic acronyms, such as Asda (Associated Dairies) and sitcom (situation comedy). (3) Hybrids of these, such as CoSIRA (Council for Small Industries in Rural Areas) and MATCON (microwave aerospace terminal control). Pronunciation and orthography The pronunciation of letter acronyms has encouraged two tendencies in abbreviation: to omit points ( NATO rather than N.A.T.O. ); to use lower-case letters ( radar rather than RADAR ). As a result, an acronym may become so fully...

Medical Practice in the Military

Medical Practice in the Military   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Army, 1607–1939 , 1968. S. Neel , Medical Support of the U.S. Army in Vietnam, 1965–1970 , 1973. D. H. Robinson , The Dangerous Sky: A History of Aerospace Medicine , 1973. R. C. Engelman and Robert J. T. Joy , Two Hundred Years of Military Medicine , 1975. Albert E. Cowdrey , The Medic's War: Korea , 1987. Graham A. Cosmas and Albert E. Cowdrey , Medical Service in the European Theater of Operations , 1992. Rod...

Aviation

Aviation   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,296 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Despite gender and race discrimination, and despite the small numbers of black women active in aviation, black women have contributed notably to the encouragement of black Americans’ participation in aviation and to the furtherance of aerospace research. The Early Years of Flight Women actively participated in aviation from the earliest days of the French balloonists and parachutists in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, both as balloon pilots and as entertainers. In 1900 , a black woman named Mary Doughtry reportedly performed as a...

Computers.

Computers.   Reference library

Robert W. Seidel

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,671 words

...provided numerical simulations when analytical solutions were not available. Large amounts of experimental data could be analyzed automatically by computer programs. Other computationally intensive fields such as fluid mechanics benefited enormously from the computer. In the aerospace industry, the use of computers grew rapidly in the 1950s, and computer modeling supplemented, and in some cases, replaced, more expensive and time-consuming tests of aerodynamic design. The space program provided additional applications (and resources) for computers, as well...

Holocaust

Holocaust   Reference library

William E. Seidelman and Charles G. Roland

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,598 words

...medicine (although he did not serve in this capacity). Many of the leading scientists associated with Nazi medical crimes continued their academic careers after the war. Mengele's mentor, Verschuer, became the professor of genetics at the University of Münster, where he was responsible for training many of the postwar leaders in genetics in Germany. Professor Stieve was appointed dean of medicine of Humbolt University and a lecture hall at the Berlin Charité Hospital was named in his honor. Hubertus Strughold is known as the father of the American aerospace...

Technology

Technology   Reference library

The Islamic World: Past and Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,265 words

...have been slow to spread. Instead, most work in the field of technology continues to take place within individual nations. Pakistan, for example, has invested government resources into various forms of research, including a nuclear energy program. Indonesia has developed an aerospace industry, and Turkey has made advances in agriculture, textiles, and the study of water resources. One major area in which progress has occurred throughout the Islamic world is communications technology. Cell phones have grown in popularity, expanding telephone access to rural...

Scientists, African

Scientists, African   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,330 words
Illustration(s):
1

...African science and the recognition and development of African scientists. The life histories of other preeminent African scientists, even those working in very different disciplines, share similar attributes. Cheick Modibo Diarra, born in Mali, earned his PhD in mechanical and aerospace engineering from Howard University in Washington, D.C. Diarra joined the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, where he served as interplanetary navigator for five major NASA missions, including the Mars Observer and Mars Pathfinder. For the Pathfinder mission,...

Science

Science   Reference library

The Islamic World: Past and Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,820 words

...Governments devote the bulk of their resources to science and engineering programs, which attract top students. Turkey promotes programs in hydrology (study of water), textile production, and agriculture. Malaysia has developed programs in electronics, and Indonesia emphasizes aerospace technology. Pakistan, the only Muslim country to have nuclear weapons, conducts research in nuclear energy. Iran and Iraq have pursued petroleum and weapons research. Schools that teach science and engineering graduate hundreds of thousands of students each year, but the quality...

Tuskegee Institute

Tuskegee Institute   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,186 words
Illustration(s):
1

...degree program; centers for aerospace engineering and bioethics research; and a department of aviation science. The campus underwent dramatic cosmetic changes, and in 1994 , enrollment peaked at 3,500. As of 2008 , Tuskegee had an enrollment of 3,000 students with 900 faculty and staff. It was home to five colleges: agriculture, environmental, and natural sciences; business and information science; engineering, architecture, and the physical sciences; liberal arts and education; and veterinary medicine, nursing, and allied health. Tuskegee...

France

France   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,605 words
Illustration(s):
2

...leading exporter of wine by value (but not volume). France is also one of the main supporters of the EU’s expensive system of agricultural support. France is one of the world’s largest industrial powers and has many globally important companies in aircraft manufacture, aerospace, car making, train building (such as the high-speed TGV), pharmaceuticals, fashion, and food manufacture, for example. France is also a leading arms exporter. With no oil, France has invested heavily in nuclear electricity, some of which it exports. Like many other European countries...

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality   Reference library

Michael Heim

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,469 words

...and light radiosity that pull the eye into the flat plane with the power of a detailed etching. Landscapes produced on the GE Aerospace “Visionics” equipment, for instance, are photorealistic real-time, texture-mapped worlds through which users can navigate. These graphic data worlds spring from the context of mission rehearsal and training in military flight simulators. Researchers now seek to bring these techniques to medicine, entertainment, and education. The claim of virtual reality aestheticians often goes beyond the claims of photographic realism or...

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,379 words

...and light radiosity that pull the eye into the flat plane with the power of a detailed etching. Landscapes produced on the GE Aerospace “Visionics” equipment, for instance, are photorealistic real-time, texture-mapped worlds through which users can navigate. These graphic data-worlds spring from the context of mission rehearsal and training in military flight simulators. Researchers now seek to bring these techniques to medicine, entertainment, and education. The claim of Virtual Reality aestheticians often goes beyond the claims of photographic realism or...

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