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adoption

In the heroic monomyth, the divine child is often adopted by menials or animals after being abandoned or threatened in some way. Oedipus, Sigurd (Siegfried), Krishna, Cybele, and Romulus ...

Adoption

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The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
56 words

...Adoption Formal adoption is forbidden by the Quran ( 33:4–5 ), which calls for children to carry their own names since children need to know their origins. Adopted children cannot legally inherit under Islamic law. However, informal adoption, known as “embracing the child,” exists, enabling Muslims to bestow monetary gifts upon such children during their...

adoption

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A Dictionary of Social Work and Social Care (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...distinctive. Following the making of the adoption order the child and adoptive parents have the same rights as if the child had been born to them, including rights of inheritance. The Adoption and Children Act ( 2002 ), the Adoption Regulations ( 2005 ), and the Adoption Agencies Regulations ( 2005 ) define the legal framework for adoption and adoption services in England and Wales , the intention being to improve the performance of adoption services and promote the greater use of adoption. The 2002 Act aligns adoption law with the Children Act ( 1989 ) in...

ADOPTION

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
204 words

...law. The growth of adoption as a practice among modern Jews has led to changes in Jewish norms outside the frame of halakhah . A secular form of adoption exists in Israeli law under the Adoption of Children Law of 1960. In the United States, adopted children of non- Jewish mothers may be converted as infants, although some go on to reconvert as young adults (to ensure the halakhic validity of their conversion). Michael Gold , “ Adoption: A New Problem for Jewish Law ,” Judaism 36 (1987): 443–450. Shelley Kapnek Rosenberg , Adoption and the Jewish...

Adoption

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Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Adoption by arms An ancient custom of giving arms to a person of merit, which put them under the obligation of being one’s champion and defender. Adoption by baptism Being godfather or godmother to a child. Adoption by hair Boso, king of Provence (r.879–89), is said to have cut off his hair and given it to Pope John VIII (r.872–82) as a sign that the latter had adopted him. Adoption of children In English law adoption is effected by a court order that vests parental responsibility for a child to the adopter or adopters and extinguishes the parental...

Adoption

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Ellen Herman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., no adoption laws existed. People with means used wills and indentures to forge legal ties with children born to others, typically for the purpose of inheritance. But most adoptions during the colonial era and early republic were informal, including the children and adults of European descent captured and “adopted” by native tribes. These kin relations all existed beyond the law. In the nineteenth century, state legislatures began passing adoption statutes. The 1851 Massachusetts Adoption of Children Act is considered the first modern adoption law...

adoption

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World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
55 words

... Act of a person legally taking as a child one who is not his/her own by birth or law. In Britain, anyone over 21 years of age can adopt a child. Usually the child's natural parent/s must consent to the adoption. Once adopted, the child assumes the rights and responsibilities of a natural...

adoption

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The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
98 words

... . Legal adoption was introduced in England and Wales in 1926 and in Northern Ireland in 1929 . In independent Ireland legislation was delayed by the strength of traditional attitudes to the family, deference to Catholic teaching on the rights of natural parents, and fears that Protestant couples might obtain control of Catholic children. An act of 1952 permitted the adoption of orphan and illegitimate children by couples of the same religious denomination. The latter restriction was removed in 1974 , having been ruled unconstitutional in excluding...

adoption

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A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
70 words

...adoption The take-up of new technology by firms or consumers. A high rate of adoption is linked to economic growth. It has been argued that successful technologies are now adopted much more quickly than in the past. For example, it took 40 years for the telephone to be adopted by 40 per cent of US households but only ten years for the smartphones to achieve the same level of adoption...

Adoption

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Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...a parent. Stepparent adoptions differ from other adoptions because the adoption involves a child who is already legally in the family. In most states, stepparent adoptions are about twice as common as nonstepparent adoptions. Stepparent adoptions are typically administered separately from nonstepparent adoptions and, because of their impact on the distribution of family property, are often overseen in superior court or probate court. Independent Adoptions Independent adoptions occur when parents place children directly with adoptive families of their choice...

Adoption

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Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
573 words

...Ron Nixon . “Overcoming Adoption's Racial Barriers.” New York Times , 17 August 2006. Addresses transracial adoption and includes interviews with people on both sides of the debate. Day, Dawn . The Adoption of Black Children: Counteracting Institutional Discrimination . Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1979. Excellent sociological study of black adoption in the United States before 1980, especially concerning the D.C.–Maryland–Virginia area. This source also includes a comprehensive bibliography related to the topic of black adoption. — Qrescent Mali...

Adoption

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A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
244 words

...up an orphan in his household, Scripture considers it as if he had actually given birth to the child; but nowhere in Talmudic law is real legal adoption recognized, despite the fact that the Romans certainly knew of it. There is nothing in Jewish law to prevent the drawing-up of new legislation in such matters and the Adoption of Children law of 1960 in the State of Israel empowers a court to grant an adoption order for children under the age of 18. However, an adopted child is not treated as a natural child in every respect. If a couple adopt a boy and a...

adoption

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The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
781 words

... Adoption is a process for conferring parental rights and is currently governed by the Adoption and Children Act 2002 . Unsurprisingly, it is difficult to find a consensus on adoption law. An adoption order is draconian: parental responsibility is transferred to the adoptive parents so that, for the adopted child , it is as if, legally, the previous family had not existed. Further, the legal framework is a response to a host of contentious issues, for example, the circumstances in which parental opposition to the adoption of their child may be...

adoption

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A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
748 words

...adoption 1. The process by which a parent’s legal rights and duties in respect of an unmarried minor are transferred to another person or persons. Adoption can only take place by means of an adoption order made by the family proceedings court, the county court, or the High Court. After the adoption order the child’s natural parents are no longer considered in law to be the parents of the child, and the child is henceforth regarded as the legal child of the adoptive parents. Adoption is different from any other court order affecting children, such as a ...

Adoption

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
2,892 words

...effect on adoption in many ways. Prospective adopters might well be daunted by vociferous critics of adoption, some of whom asserted that biological ties were primary and adoption was disruptive—even abusive. Few children were available for domestic adoption, and prospective adopters confronted a range of obstacles and new considerations if they pursued transnational adoption. And yet even as the postwar consensus dissolved, by the early twenty‐first century there were signs of an emerging new consensus—one that cautiously reaffirmed adoption as an...

adoption

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Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
143 words

... Adoption is the term used in the law of treaties to denote the agreement of the parties as to what the text of a proposed treaty shall be, a process not necessarily identical either with the authentication of that text or its acceptance as binding. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 23 May 1969 ( 1155 U.N.T.S. 331 ), art. 9, provides: ‘(1) The adoption of the text of a treaty takes place by the consent of all the States participating in its drawing up except as provided in paragraph 2. (2) The adoption of the text of a treaty at an...

Adoption

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The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

... In the heroic monomyth , the divine child is often adopted by menials or animals after being abandoned or threatened in some way. Oedipus , Sigurd ( Siegfried ), Krishna , Cybele , and Romulus and Remus are all...

adoption

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A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
35 words

... Investing parental care on a juvenile to which the adopter is unrelated. In some cases, observed in several species, the adoptee may belong to a different species (e.g. companion animals cared for by humans)....

adoption

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The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
609 words

... . Child adoption, both customary and legislative, has left few families untouched in pre- and post-contact Canada. Although ‘adoption’ has been commonly used to describe the customary exchange of orphans and non-orphans among kin and non-kin, neither civil nor common law originally provided for the legal transfer of parental rights. Massachusetts broke with Western tradition, inaugurating the first modern adoption law in 1851 . New Brunswick passed Canada's first modest legislation in 1873 ; Nova Scotia followed in 1896 . Customary adoption—that...

Adoption

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,666 words

...concerned as informal adoption, even though formal adoption was only first authorized in England by the Adoption Act of 1926 . Such informal adoptions by relatives and neighbors are likely to have occurred in earlier centuries and in other societies. The many different motives for adoption are revealed in a number of studies of the adoption process in specific time periods and countries. An examination of adoption contracts in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Paris, for example, has shown that 30 percent of the small number of adoption contracts uncovered...

adoption

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Mark Golden, Adolf Berger, Barry Nicholas, and Susan M. Treggiari

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,455 words

...adoption, though individuals certainly were; adoption was essentially a private matter, regulated by the phratries and demes into which adopted children were introduced, in which the archon took no initiative; heirs had no legal obligation to continue an oikos through posthumous adoption. Furthermore, arguments (based on the disappearance of testamentary adoption) that continuation of the oikos ceased to be a goal of adoption after the 4th cent. probably read too much into the silence of our literary sources. Almost all our evidence from adoption in...

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