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Overview

adaptation

1 (in evolution) Any change in the structure or functioning of successive generations of a population that makes it better suited to its environment. Natural selection of ...

adaptation

adaptation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Plant Sciences (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
16 words

... That which fits an organism both generally and specifically to exploit a given environmental...

adaptation

adaptation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
55 words

...adaptation Policies and actions to prevent or reduce the adverse effects of climate change . Examples of adaptation policies include building flood defences and developing resilient crops. The European Commission adopted an EU Adaptation Plan in 2013 to facilitate coordination among the EU member countries in developing and implementing adaptation strategies. See also mitigation...

adaptation

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A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...adaptation 1. A reduced sensitivity in sensory or excitable cells following repeated stimulation. Phasic cells show rapid adaptation, tonic cells respond slowly. 2. More generally, describing changes in any system with time, e.g. the down-regulation of receptors ( tachyphylaxis )....

adaptation

adaptation n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. 1. In the theory of evolution , a feature of an organism's structure, physiology, or behaviour that solves a problem in its life or helps it to pass its genes on to the next generation. 2. In physiology and sensation, a temporary reduction in the responsiveness of a sensory receptor other than a pain receptor as a result of repeated or continuous stimulation. Also called sensory adaptation . See also auditory adaptation , chromatic adaptation , cross-adaptation , dark adaptation , light adaptation , odour adaptation , prism...

adaptation

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A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... A change in the structure or habit of an organism that makes it better adjusted to its surroundings. Short‐term change is physiological (for example, acclimation ) or behavioural ( phenotypic adaptation ), and long‐term change is genetic ( genotypic adaptation ). Particular genetic adaptations in a population become frequent and dominant if they enhance an individual's ability to survive in the environment, for example as climate changes through time. See also evolution ; natural selection...

adaptation

adaptation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Zoology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
167 words

... 1. Generally, the processes by which animals adjust to their environments. The adjustments may occur by natural selection , as individuals bearing genetic traits that allow them to flourish under prevailing conditions breed more prolifically than those lacking such traits (genotypic adaptation). Alternatively, adaptation may involve non-genetic changes in individuals, such as physiological modification (e.g. acclimatization ) or behavioural changes (phenotypic adaptation). Compare abaptation . 2. ( evol .) A characteristic or suite of...

adaptation

adaptation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...adaptation The actions taken to reduce the adverse effects of climate change . Examples of adaptation are raising coastal defences to reduce the risk of flooding from sea-level rise; selecting crops that are more drought-resistant; and altering buildings so that they remain cool in hotter...

adaptation

adaptation ([Ge])   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
48 words

... [Ge] The ability of a biological organism to survive within a given environment by changing its behaviour or physical attributes. Extended to include human adaptation to the environment in which communities find themselves and therefore a major explanatory tool in developing archaeological understandings of periods of...

Adaptation

Adaptation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Adaptation 1 . The process by which organisms surmount environmental challenges. 13 , 32 , 33 See also resilience . 2 . A heritable component of the phenotype that confers an advantage in survival and reproductive success. ...

adaptation

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A Dictionary of Geology and Earth Sciences (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

... 1. Generally, the adjustments that occur in animals in respect of their environments. The adjustments may occur by natural selection , as individuals with favourable genetic traits breed more prolifically than those lacking these traits (genotypic adaptation), or they may involve non-genetic changes in individuals, such as physiological modification (e.g. acclimatization) or behavioural changes (phenotypic adaptation). Compare abaptation . 2. In an evolutionary sense, that which fits an organism both generally and specifically to exploit a given...

adaptation

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A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...adaptation The process of physiological adjustment to environmental conditions. Organisms best able to adjust to a changed environment have enhanced prospects for survival and an advantage in propagating themselves. Adaptation explains the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms, pesticide-resistant insects, and insecticide-resistant weeds and is a central principle of evolutionary biology. Thus the word “adaptation” also refers to the evolutionary changes that proceed over the course of many generations of an organism. ...

adaptation

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...screenplays into books. Distinctions are commonly drawn between ‘faithful’ adaptations, in which the distinctive elements (characters, settings, plot events, dialogue) of the original work are preserved as far as the new medium allows, and ‘free’ adaptations, sometimes called ‘versions’ or ‘interpretations’, in which significant elements of the original work are omitted or replaced by wholly new material. Further reading: Julie Sanders , Adaptation and Appropriation ...

adaptation

adaptation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
422 words

... The transformation of a source work into a new form, commonly a *novel rewritten as a *play (theatrical adaptation ) or as a film (film adaptation ). Adaptation is sometimes associated with postmodernist notions of intertextuality and hybridity and the study of the interweaving of different texts and textual traditions in literature, art, film, and music. Literary adaptation s refer to a written text, story, or characters recast to suit a new form, often with the purpose of offering a commentary on the source. The Bible, *Homer’s Iliad and...

Adaptation

Adaptation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... . There is a sense in which every literary work involves some degree of adaptation. From the classical Greek tragedies, which adapted myths, to their Renaissance equivalents, through to the modernist experimentations of the twentieth century, adaptation seems to be a structural literary device. The Roman writers Terence , Plautus , and Seneca adapted the works of the classical Greek playwrights (mainly Euripides). In turn, they provided much of the source material for the plays of Ben Jonson and William Shakespeare . Each case of adaptation...

adaptation

adaptation   Reference library

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
115 words

... The range of genetic, physiological, and cultural changes through which individuals and societies respond to their environment. One of the earliest and most enduring theories of adaptation was Charles Darwin 's evolutionary theory, which posited that advantageous biological adaptations to the environment tend to dominate over time. This schema has been extended to explain cultural change and the diversity of cultural forms, variously as a response to different environmental challenges, internal constraints, or challenges from other groups. The...

adaptation

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The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Medicine and health
Length:
110 words

... 1 The process by which a body responds positively over a period of time to the effects of exercise so that he or she can cope with higher workloads. In a well-designed training programme, it is important to increase the workloads gradually as adaptation takes place, to ensure that there is a sufficient training stimulus ( see overload principle ). 2 In sociology, the manner in which any social system, such as a sports club or sporting body, responds to its environment in order to survive. 3 Sensory adaptation; a decline in the transmission of a...

adaptation

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A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
132 words

... The process and practice of adapting otherwise standard products and services to meet the needs of varying customer types, either individually or customer groupings. Adaptation is typically used by practitioners of international marketing to ensure that the products and services being produced and delivered are relevant and suited to the needs of different national markets and standards. Conceptually, adaptation is often discussed as an alternative to standardized marketing strategies and approaches, rather than a refinement of the standard...

adaptation

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A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
107 words

...adaptation 1. (in evolution) Any change in the structure or functioning of successive generations of a population that makes it better suited to its environment. Natural selection of heritable adaptations ultimately leads to the development of new species. Increasing adaptation of a species to a particular environment tends to diminish its ability to adapt to any sudden change in that environment. 2. (in physiology) The alteration in the degree of sensitivity (either an increase or a decrease) of a sense organ to suit conditions more extreme than...

adaptation

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A Dictionary of Genetics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
43 words

... 1. the process by which organisms undergo modification so as to function more perfectly in a given environment. 2. any developmental, behavioral, anatomical, or physiological characteristic of an organism that, in its environment, improves its chances for survival and of leaving...

adaptation

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A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... 1 Generally, the adjustments that occur in animals in respect of their environments. The adjustments may occur by natural selection , as individuals with favourable genetic traits breed more prolifically than those lacking these traits (genotypic adaptation), or they may involve non-genetic changes in individuals, such as physiological modification (e.g. acclimatization ) or behavioural changes (phenotypic adaptation). Compare abaptation . 2 (evol.) That which fits an organism both generally and specifically to exploit a given adaptive zone ...

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