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Overview

acts/omissions doctrine

Subject: Philosophy

The doctrine that it makes an ethical difference whether an agent actively intervenes to bring about a result, or omits to act in circumstances in which it is foreseen that as a result of ...

acts/omissions doctrine

acts/omissions doctrine   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
227 words

.../omissions doctrine The doctrine that it makes an ethical difference whether an agent actively intervenes to bring about a result, or omits to act in circumstances in which it is foreseen that as a result of the omission the same result occurs. Thus suppose I wish you dead. If I act to bring about your death I am a murderer, but if I happily discover you in danger of death, and fail to act to save you, I am not acting, and therefore according to the doctrine not a murderer. Critics reply that omissions can be as deliberate and immoral as commissions: if I am...

acts/omissions doctrine

acts/omissions doctrine  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The doctrine that it makes an ethical difference whether an agent actively intervenes to bring about a result, or omits to act in circumstances in which it is foreseen that as a result of the ...
The New Testament

The New Testament   Reference library

David Parker

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
11,025 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

...of Westcott and Hort's text, and Codex Sinaiticus was its main supporter. Curiously enough, although its recognition came so late, Codex Vaticanus had always been known. It first appears in modern times in a late fifteenth-century catalogue of the Vatican Library. Its omission of the passage in 1 John which had proved so vexatious to Erasmus was reported to him as early as 1521. An edition of the Septuagint based upon it was published in 1587. It was collated a number of times in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. After the transcriptions...

Romans

Romans   Reference library

Craig C. Hill and Craig C. Hill

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
30,053 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...their acceptance be but life from the dead!’ ( v. 15 ). Interestingly, the author of Luke–Acts also maintains the expectation of a Jewish restoration following the Gentile mission (e.g. Acts 1:6–7 ; cf. the periodization of history in Lk 21:24 : ‘Jerusalem will be trampled on by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled ,’ my emphasis). Unfortunately, NT scholarship often has overlooked the presence of these ideas in Romans as well as in Luke-Acts. So, when all is said and done, God's election of ‘all Israel’ stands (cf. ‘full inclusion’...

Tobit

Tobit   Reference library

Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ and Joseph A. Fitzmyer, SJ

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,111 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...(discovered in 1844), and part of it in both the eleventh-century MS 319 (Vatopedi 513), and sixth-century MS 910 (Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 1076). Sinaiticus has two major lacunae, 4:7–19 b and 13:6 i –10 b , the first of which is covered by MS 319; also a number of minor omissions of phrases or clauses, which sometimes make the comprehension of its context difficult, but which can be supplied from other Greek forms or the Old Latin version. This recension is used in the NRSV; the numbering of verses here follows that of this recension in the critical text...

Matthew

Matthew   Reference library

Dale C. Allison, Jr. and Dale C. Allison, Jr.

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
49,867 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Judas' death— Acts 1:16–20 and two fragments assigned to Papias apud Apollinarius (of Laodicea) and preserved in catenas to Mt 27 (a short account) and Acts 1 (a long account). Although very different from Matthew and each other, there are common items: (1) money from Judas purchases a property near Jerusalem (Matthew: the chief priests use the money of betrayal; Luke: Judas himself acquires the land); (2) that property was known as ‘the Field of Blood’ (but whereas in Matthew the name is associated with the innocent blood of Jesus, in Acts it derives...

Isaiah

Isaiah   Reference library

R. Coggins and R. Coggins

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
64,792 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...wisdom and counsel; here by contrast they are reduced to internal division and desperate measures to find out what action to take. The ‘hard master’ and ‘fierce king’ of v. 4 may well be a reference to the protracted claims to rule over Egypt by the Persian rulers. A striking omission throughout this section is of any reference to the Exodus tradition. As we have seen (e.g. 4:5; 12:2 ) this was not totally ignored in the first part of Isaiah, but it is not as prominent as it becomes in the latter part of the book, and here, where allusions might have been...

Ecclesiasticus, or The Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach

Ecclesiasticus, or The Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach   Reference library

John J. Collins and John J. Collins

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
38,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Qumran scrolls, and may not have been known in Jerusalem at this time. Sirach also ignores Ruth, and fails to single out a single woman for praise. Most striking, however, is the omission of Ezra, especially in view of the inclusion of Nehemiah. It would be rash to conclude that the book of Ezra was not yet written. There is no apparent ideological reason for the omission. The most plausible explanation offered to date is that Sirach preferred Nehemiah because his building activity offered a precedent to that of Simon II ( Begg 1988 ). Cf. the emphasis...

1 & 2 Samuel

1 & 2 Samuel   Reference library

Gwilym H. Jones, Gwilym H. Jones, and Gwilym H. Jones

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44,450 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of Kings were attributed to Jeremiah ( B. Bat. 14b–15a). But the tradition of ‘prophetic’ authorship is no longer tenable. B. Text. 1. The Hebrew text of the books of Samuel (MT) is in a poor state, evident mainly in the number and extent of its haplographies, i.e. scribal omissions from the text caused by the use of identical consonants at the end of words or sentences (known as homoioteleuton ). For examples, reference can be made to: 1 Sam 4:1 b , where the Greek text contains the additional words, ‘And Eli grew very old, and his sons continued to act...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Terence E. Fretheim and Terence E. Fretheim

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
29,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Milgrom 1990 : 497–9 ). Many sites are not mentioned elsewhere ( vv. 13, 18–29 ); most are not geographically identifiable. The itinerary is a surprisingly ‘secular’ document; divine activity is mentioned only at the beginning ( v. 4 ) and at the death of Aaron ( v. 38 ). This omission emphasizes the importance of human activity on this journey. The reader can recognize two uneven segments, up to and following the death of Aaron ( vv. 38–9 ), perhaps betraying priestly interests, and the reference to the king of Arad ( v. 40 ), perhaps because this is the...

John

John   Reference library

René Kieffer and René Kieffer

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
52,850 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...discourse is interrupted by different interventions of Peter, Thomas, Philip, and Judas (not Iscariot). ( 13:31–8 ) Jesus Announces his Departure and Peter's Future Defection vv. 31–2 , the aorists in these verses make Jesus speak retrospectively at the time of fulfilment. The omission of v. 32 a in important MSS is probably due to the similar endings en autō . The evangelist wants to impress his reader through repetitions of the same theme. In 11:4 he underlined how the Son of God was glorified through the illness of Lazarus. In 12:23, 27–8 Jesus spoke...

Genesis

Genesis   Reference library

R. N. Whybray and R. N. Whybray

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
35,219 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...32:32; Isa 1:9–10; Jer 23:14 ). It is strongly stressed in 19:4 that every male individual was involved in the homosexual attack intended against the two angels. This is no doubt to be seen as a justification of the subsequent annihilation of the whole populace; but the omission of any reference to the women of the city (or to the children) reflects at least a residuary notion of communal rather than of individual guilt. Lot's offer of his daughters ( v. 8 ) also reflects a moral code, repulsive to the modern reader, which put the duty of hospitality...

killing

killing  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
For the distinction between killing and letting die, see acts/omissions doctrine; see also abortion, death, euthanasia, just war.
trolley problem

trolley problem  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Problem in ethics posed by the English philosopher Philippa Foot in her ‘The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of the Double Effect’ (Oxford Review, 1967). A runaway train or trolley comes to a ...
nothing

nothing  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The non-existence of all things; a concept that can be frightening, fascinating, or dismissed as the product of the logical confusion of treating the term ‘nothing’ as itself a referring expression ...
deceit

deceit  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The intentional attempt to mislead people. It gives rise to questions of definition (separating it from such neighbours as exaggeration, irony, parody) and to questions of justification. Many moral ...
Bill of Rights

Bill of Rights  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(1791)The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the USA. The constitutional arrangements of 1787 were assumed to guarantee human and civil rights, but omission of specific rights led to ...
killing

killing   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
19 words

...For the distinction between killing and letting die, see acts/omissions doctrine ; see also abortion , death , euthanasia , just war...

active/passive

active/passive adj.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
63 words

... adj. the ethical distinction between actively doing something to a patient and simply allowing it to happen or failing to act (the acts and omissions doctrine ). For instance, doctors should act to save life if possible, but when death is inevitable it is permissible to let it happen, although the prohibition against killing would not allow active intervention. See also dying...

trolley problem

trolley problem   Reference library

Sarah Richmond

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
143 words

...is that this is at least morally permissible. Why, then, do we not think it permissible for a surgeon, in urgent need of five different organs to save five patients, to kill a healthy patient to procure them? Dr Sarah Richmond See also acts and omissions . Philippa Foot , ‘The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of Double Effect’, reprinted in her Virtues and Vices (Oxford, 1978, 2002). Judith Jarvis Thomson , ‘The Trolley Problem’, reprinted in her Rights, Restitution and Risk (Cambridge, Mass.,...

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