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active audience theory

The view (particularly associated with mass-media usage) that the audiences are not merely passive receptacles for imposed meanings (see hypodermic model) but rather individual audience ...

active audience theory

active audience theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
174 words

... audience theory The view (particularly associated with mass-media usage) that audiences are not merely passive receptacles for imposed meanings ( see effects tradition ; hypodermic model ) but actively (albeit often unconsciously) involved—both cognitively and emotionally—in making sense of texts . This active involvement has several interrelated dimensions: perception , comprehension , interpretation , evaluation , and response ( see also beholder’s share ; elaboration ). Proponents of active audience theory claim that scholars cannot...

active audience theory

active audience theory  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
The view (particularly associated with mass-media usage) that the audiences are not merely passive receptacles for imposed meanings (see hypodermic model) but rather individual audience members who ...
Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...against Antoine Lavoisier's chemical theories he protested against the expensive equipment that the French savant employed, claiming that it rendered experiments immune from adequate testing by others who lacked such financial support. Priestley regarded natural philosophy as a means of cultivating the rational capacities that would allow the public—for example, the Dissenters excluded from Oxford and Cambridge universities—to resist ‘the empire of superstition’ [ see *Dissenting academies ]. His egalitarian theory of knowledge stressed the role of...

Literary Theory

Literary Theory   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,935 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Coleridge, and De Quincey, with Kant fortuitously providing a centre, represent the cardinal points of aesthetic and literary theory in Britain during our period. Unfortunately, literary and aesthetic theory between 1765 and 1832 has many more ‘centres’ than this scheme allows and more cardinal points than are possible in a compass. For example, although William *Blake would certainly subscribe to Coleridge's belief in the active role played by the human imagination, the influence of radical Protestant and *millenarian ideas on his thought gives this a...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...constitutional debates [ see *class, 15 ]. The locus classicus for the analogy drawn between the state of the language and the state of the constitution was the third book of *Locke 's Essay concerning Human Understanding ( 1690 ). The theory of language set out in this work, no less than Locke's constitutional theory, had the notion of ‘consent’ at its basis. Locke argued that words were not the signs of things but of ideas. These signs were not naturally tied to their meanings. Language, according to Locke, is a social compact—the product of an agreement...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...been assigned the task of representing and rationalizing the social virtues; in turn virtue had provided the artists with a superlatively respectable showroom for their work, and with an audience morally guided to admire the conception and execution of their labour. The loss of this prefabricated exhibition space, with its clear social margins and sympathetic, sensible audience, was considerable, as suggested by the material and philosophical problems faced by the artists in the following years of independent exhibition. Relations between members in the Society...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...celebration of types such as the noble savage. Travellers were not only exploring new lands, but also new ways of writing. Writers of voyages seem frequently to have been misconstrued in a generic as well as a geographical sense: the diverse popular, scientific, and official audiences for their works could not all be pleased at once. While scholars need to read travellers' accounts critically, uncovering the racism buried in objectivist description and sentimental rhapsody, we should also be conscious of the epistemological and moral uncertainties that are...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Barber’s Caesar in Phyllida Lloyd’s 2012 Donmar production, set in a high-security women’s penitentiary, while Gregory Doran ’s 2012 RSC production, set in an unspecified African nation with Jeffery Kissoon’s Caesar its Mugabe-esque dictator figure, was a source of tangled audience debate both for its geopolitical and racial representations. Michael Dobson , rev. Will Sharpe On the screen: Nine silent versions (the first made by Georges Méliès) emerged between 1907 and 1914 . Material from the play was among the earliest Shakespeare scenes broadcast on...

2 The Sacred Book

2 The Sacred Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
9,978 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Church. Although the letters are addressed to particular congregations and their problems, Paul’s message is intended for a wider audience, an evolving community, and considers its struggle to survive in the hostile sociocultural environment of the Graeco-Roman world. For his message, Paul claimed that his authority came directly from Jesus, the resurrected Lord and Saviour. Paul’s letters were intended to be read aloud to an audience, which was also true of the Hebrew Bible and other documents of the New Testament. Within the context of the ancient Graeco-Roman...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...adopted roman, largely under the influence of Carolus Linnaeus ( 1707–78 ), who induced the government to abolish customs duty on Dutch roman type. For scholars and scientists hoping to reach an international readership, Fraktur was an obstacle, so books intended for such an audience were often printed in roman. Yet domestic readers preferred Fraktur as being more legible and easier on the eyes. In the 1930s , the National Socialists were inclined to enforce its use as an expression of the Nordic soul—only with difficulty were they persuaded by the ministry...

media theory

media theory  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. Broadly, any coherent framework of ideas and concepts for analysing or generating investigable hypotheses about mediated communication, including media comparisons and theories of influence and ...
advertising theory

advertising theory  

An attempt to explain why advertising successfully persuades audiences to adopt a preference for a given product, service, or brand and ultimately to make a purchase.
mass audience

mass audience  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
In mass society theory in the early days of the mass media, and in the rhetoric of both right- and left-wing cultural critics, the pejorative representation of mass media audiences as a vast, ...
stage fright

stage fright  

A form of anxiety preceding or accompanying participation in any activity involving public self-presentation before an audience. Also called performance anxiety. See also audience effect, drive ...
drive theory of social facilitation

drive theory of social facilitation  

A theory formulated in 1965 by the US-based Polish psychologist Robert B(oleslaw) Zajonc (1923–2008) to explain what had until then appeared to be contradictory findings on audience effects and ...
film audience

film audience  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
See also audiences.1. A group of viewers of a film: either in a cinema, or at home watching on DVD and other formats (though often used synonymously with film spectators).2. In film studies, a group ...
reception model

reception model  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
A conceptualization of the mass media (or of media research) in terms of the active role of audiences in meaning-making (McQuail), or more broadly in terms of the uses to which they put the media ...
pluralist model

pluralist model  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
In relation to media power, a liberal pluralist position in which the mass media are seen as enjoying significant autonomy from the state, and media professionals are allowed considerable flexibility ...
receiver

receiver  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. In the simplest transmission models of communication (in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver), a person who receives the message, or more broadly the audience for the message. This is ...
hypodermic model

hypodermic model  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Media studies
1. Not so much a model or a theory as a metaphor for a popular assumption that communication involves the transfer of ideas, thoughts, feelings, facts, information, knowledge, or meanings from sender ...

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