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Overview

acid–base homeostasis

All living things depend on water. Life consists of a highly complex series of chemical reactions occurring in aqueous media. Among the most important factors in the composition of these ...

acid–base homeostasis

acid–base homeostasis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,416 words

...–base homeostasis All living things depend on water. Life consists of a highly complex series of chemical reactions occurring in aqueous media. Among the most important factors in the composition of these fluids are the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions, which determine the acidity or alkalinity of the fluid. The maintenance of suitable concentrations of these ions is called acidbase homeostasis. The cells of the most primitive marine organisms are bathed directly by the sea. The environment of such cells is very variable, being at the...

acid–base homeostasis

acid–base homeostasis  

Reference type:
Overview Page
All living things depend on water. Life consists of a highly complex series of chemical reactions occurring in aqueous media. Among the most important factors in the composition of these ...
homeostasis

homeostasis  

Reference type:
Overview Page
n. the physiological process by which the internal systems of the body (e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, acid-base balance) are maintained at equilibrium, despite variations in the external ...
ventilatory buffering

ventilatory buffering  

A homeostatic mechanism (see homeostasis) involving changes in ventilation that help to maintain the acid-base balance in body fluids. Ventilatory buffering is particularly important during exercise ...
bicarbonate

bicarbonate   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
87 words

...A salt of carbonic acid, or the dissociated ion HCO - 3 . The extracellular fluids of the body (blood plasma and tissue fluid) contain 20–25 mmol/litre of bicarbonate (about a quarter of the concentration of chloride). Regulation of its concentration (by the kidneys ) relative to that of carbon dioxide (altered by changes in breathing ) is crucial to the function of maintaining acidbase homeostasis . Ingestion of bicarbonate is a common remedy for ‘ indigestion ’, because it neutralizes stomach acid. Stuart Judge See acidbase homeostasis ; body fluids...

homeostasis

homeostasis n.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
34 words

... n. the physiological process by which the internal systems of the body (e.g. blood pressure, body temperature, acid-base balance ) are maintained at equilibrium, despite variations in the external conditions. — homeostatic ...

ventilatory buffering

ventilatory buffering   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007

...buffering A homeostatic mechanism ( see homeostasis ) involving changes in ventilation that help to maintain the acid-base balance in body fluids. Ventilatory buffering is particularly important during exercise when products of respiration (especially carbon dioxide and lactic acid) decrease the pH (increased acidity) of body fluids. Ventilation of the lungs increases, helping to remove carbon dioxide from the lungs. This reduces the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood and body fluids, resulting in an increase in pH (decrease in...

homeostasis

homeostasis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biology (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
106 words

...homeostasis The regulation by an organism of the chemical composition of its body fluids and other aspects of its internal environment so that physiological processes can proceed at optimum rates. It involves monitoring changes in the external and internal environment by means of receptors and adjusting the physiological variables, such as the composition of body fluids, accordingly; excretion and osmoregulation are important in this process. Examples of homeostatic regulation are the maintenance of the acid-base balance and body temperature ( see ...

pH

pH   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
96 words

...At body temperature, neutral pH would be approximately 6.8; body fluids are therefore on the alkaline side of neutral. Control mechanisms normally keep ECF pH within 0.04 of the norm either way. The pH inside cells is more acid, and more variable, related to metabolic activity. Stuart Judge See acidbase homeostasis...

ketosis

ketosis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
323 words

...treatment — increasing ketosis leads to progressively more harmful acidosis, diabetic coma, and death. Sheila Jennett See also acidbase homeostasis ; fats ; insulin ; liver...

homeostasis

homeostasis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,358 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Perhaps the apparent redundancy provides the organism with back-up systems that improve evolutionary survival value. Improvement or not, such duplication makes the understanding of disease processes very much more difficult to disentangle. J. R. Henderson See also acidbase homeostasis ; body fluids ; hormones...

tetany

tetany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
487 words

...of the cells that secrete the hormone; it can also result from the inadvertant or inevitable removal of the parathyroids when the thyroid gland, with which they are intimately associated, is surgically removed for independent medical reasons. Tom Sears See also acid-base homeostasis ; calcium...

carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
639 words

...implausibly, that a tall dog owner would survive while his lowly dog would perish, due to the depressant effect of carbon dioxide, held to the ground because of its greater density than air. Perhaps Black's Glasgow congregation was fortunate. John Widdicombe See also acidbase homeostasis ; blood ; respiration...

starvation

starvation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
805 words

...of minerals and vitamins will also take their toll if starvation is not total, and hence attenuated enough for these deficiencies to take effect, but in terms of aid to starving communities, the urgent requirements are for the basic nutrients. Sheila Jennett See also acid base homeostasis ; blood sugar ; fasting ; hormones ; hunger...

vomiting

vomiting   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
622 words

...usually self-induced. The vomiting which may accompany early pregnancy is a common experience, so far largely unexplained. Whatever the cause, the effects of vomiting on the body follow from the loss of fluid and of the acid which the gastric juices normally contain. There can therefore be dehydration and disturbance of acidbase homeostasis , which have to be corrected if vomiting is persistent or severe. Michael Farthing , Anne...

kidneys

kidneys   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,071 words
Illustration(s):
1

...acid peptide, angiotensin I. This in turn is converted, by an enzyme present in blood vessel walls, (ACE — angiotensin converting enzyme), to an 8 amino acid peptide, angiotensin II. Angiotensin II increases nephron Na + reabsorption. Since water follows Na + , water reabsorption also increases, and urine volume falls. Angiotensin II acts directly on the nephrons, and also causes ADH release and the release of another Na + -retaining hormone, aldosterone . Another important regulatory function of the kidney is the control of acidbase homeostasis . In...

blood–brain barrier

blood–brain barrier   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
786 words
Illustration(s):
1

...), which leads to raised intracranial pressure; this can be fatal. The blood–brain barrier is thus a key element in the normal functioning of the brain, and isolates it from disturbances in the composition of the fluids in the rest of the body. Malcolm Segal See also acidbase homeostasis ; body fluids ; cell membrane ; cerebrospinal fluid ; meninges...

body fluids

body fluids   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,644 words

...fluid. There are also many other solutes whose concentration in the body fluids are kept within necessary limits by a variety of mechanisms which ultimately adjust their retention or loss, mostly in the kidneys. Christopher Lote See also acid-base homeostasis ; cell ; blood circulation ; homeostasis ; kidneys ; lymphatic system ; water balance...

breathing during exercise

breathing during exercise   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,571 words
Illustration(s):
1

...continues. This relief of dyspnoea has been termed second wind . This proves difficult to reproduce in the laboratory; consequently its mechanisms are poorly understood. Reduction in the lactic acid-related drive to breathe, as aerobic mechanisms catch up with the high-energy demands, is likely to be contributory. Brian J. Whipp See also acidbase homeostasis ; breathing ; exercise ; lungs ; metabolism ; respiration...

calcium

calcium   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,231 words

...deficiency of the relevant hormones, but also to conditions affecting kidney function and intestinal absorption; there can also be defects in the signalling proteins responsible for mediating the effects of parathyroid hormone on its target tissues. Conditions disturbing acidbase homeostasis can alter the concentration of free calcium ions in the blood: alkalinity increases, and acidity decreases their binding to proteins in the plasma. It is ironic that the insolubility of calcium phosphate that allows it to form so stable a structure in bone was probably...

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