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Overview

accounting plan

A detailed accounting guide provided by a number of European countries, such as France and Spain. The guide gives definitions of accounting terms, rules for valuation and measurement, ...

account planning

account planning   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Marketing (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
129 words

... planning The process of market and client research, development of a strategy that is specific to the client’s needs, and the programmes and creative briefs that address them. The function was developed in UK advertising agencies in the 1960s but is also used widely in the US. The account planning process uses research from potential consumers in the marketplace to inform advertising and message development. The account planner acts as the ‘conscience’ of the market, and brings to bear the mindset of the end consumer and target audience to the...

account planning

account planning  

The process of market and client research, development of a strategy that is specific to the client's needs, and the programmes and creative briefs that address them. The function was developed in UK ...
accounting plan

accounting plan   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Accounting (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
82 words

... plan A detailed accounting guide provided by a number of European countries, such as France and Spain. The guide gives definitions of accounting terms, rules for valuation and measurement, model financial statements, and a chart of accounts . This legalistic approach to the preparation of financial statements contrasts with the approach in the UK, where greater emphasis is placed on ensuring that the financial statements present a true and fair view of the financial status of a particular...

accounting plan

accounting plan  

A detailed accounting guide provided by a number of European countries, such as France and Spain. The guide gives definitions of accounting terms, rules for valuation and measurement, model financial ...
Domestic Buildings

Domestic Buildings   Quick reference

Malcolm Airs

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,135 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Household in Elizabethan England ( 1989 ), demonstrates how such a history—in this case ‘The Account of the Willughby's [ sic ] of Wollaton taken out of the Pedigree, old letters, and old Books of Accounts in my brother Sir Thomas Willoughby's study, Dec a. d. 1702 ’, written by Cassandra Willoughby , Duchess of Chandos—can be used to illuminate, in her own words ‘the day‐to‐day activities, attitudes, and social customs which underlay decisions about the planning of Wollaton Hall and buildings like it’. Documents like this, originally kept in the muniment...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Crawfurd were obviously influential, especially via bodies such as the Royal Geographical Society, non-élite accounts, such as the sensational narratives of shipwrecked sailors and the very different works of missionaries, were also widely read. For example, *Byron 's poem The Island, or Christian and his Comrades ( 1823 ) drew heavily on William *Bligh 's Narrative of the Mutiny and Seizure of the Bounty ( 1789 ) and on the popular Account of the Tonga Isles ( 1817 ), edited by meterologist John Martin from the experiences of shipwrecked sailor ...

Towns

Towns   Quick reference

David M. Palliser

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,140 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and which was used for most of the tribal capitals. These, however, were legal terms; in physical terms, using archaeological evidence, what can be distinguished are large towns with regular street plans, major public buildings, and—increasingly from the 3rd century—earthwork or stone defences; and, in contrast, many small towns, often with an irregular street plan and no defences. The larger towns had markets and workshops, and some smaller towns had specialized industrial functions, such as Durobrivae ( Water Newton , Huntingdonshire) with its pottery...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the rear. See David Hey (ed.), Richard Gough : The History of Myddle (1981) , for an example from Shropshire, where the seating plan of 1701 was used as the basis of a history of all the families in the parish. Disputes arose when families owned more than one property and allowed their servants to sit in pews in front of others. In towns, the most prominent pews were set aside for the mayor and aldermen . Few seating plans survive from the 17th century, but a number of later ones are displayed in churches or are occasionally found in the records of ...

Phrasal Adjectives

Phrasal Adjectives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,154 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...revision: This English-as-a-second-language text presents the different speaking styles for international students .) Readability is especially enhanced when the hyphens are properly used in two phrasal adjectives that modify a single noun—e.g.: 13-year-old court-ordered busing plan 24-hour-a-day doctor-supervised care county-approved billboard-siting restriction long-latency occupational-disease cases Some writers—those who haven't cultivated an empathy for their readers—would omit all those hyphens. Following are examples in which enlightened writers or...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...housing, and other necessities. It is even more difficult to make an accurate assessment of household ‘income’ as a whole, taking into account non-mainstream earnings and non-money exchanges of goods and services. Those records that do exist provide us only with examples for specific households in particular localities. That being said, in so far as the broad movements of prices and wage rates can be taken into account, we can perhaps isolate some of the main points of agreement in the debate. There was an overall rise in real incomes per head in the...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...‘revolution’ from astronomical return to total transformation, the future was now cut free from the past, notwithstanding the irony that industrial capitalism demanded a considerable degree of forward planning. In suggesting that it was possible to see the future, popular predictive or ‘superstitious’ practices threw an unquantifiable factor into this planning. If indeed the flow of time was not as equable as *Newton 's definition had claimed it to be, then the outcomes of scientific experiment, political policy, and technological advance were dangerously...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a plan of social and constitutional reforms, including ensuring popular sovereignty, political rotation, freedom of religion, speech, and writing, the creation of a popular militia, and the provision of a minimum wage. Godwin's ideas were diffused in utopian form in a work by the liberal intellectual Thomas Northmore ( 1766–1851 ). Northmore 's Memoirs of Planetes, or A Sketch of the Laws and Manners of Makar ( 1795 ) rediscovers a primitive society on a Pacific island (following *Cook 's and *Bligh 's voyages, the favourite venue for such accounts)....

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...deposits below deserted medieval villages , and the discovery of small, scattered sites elsewhere, that the village was a later form of settlement. Some villages were formed through the coalescing of independent farmsteads; others were deliberately planned. No agreement has been reached on the firm dating of planned villages, though it is accepted that they were created between the 9th and the 13th centuries. Archaeological, topographical, and documentary research has shown that communal farming in open‐field systems began not with the arrival of the...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,179 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the rest, fear or hope would stimulate appropriate behaviour. In 1819 Thomas Chalmers ( 1780–1847 ) led an experiment in one Glasgow parish to abolish poor relief. Though striking, this strategy was not endorsed by a majority in the debate. Nor was Bentham's elaborate 1798 plan adopted: to establish a vast centralized system of Panoptican workhouses, directed by a National Charity Company, in which all in need of any relief would be sent to work. More influential in the 1790s was Archdeacon *Paley 's *utilitarian argument that the poor should be cared...

The Antiquarian Tradition

The Antiquarian Tradition   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,837 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...was, indeed, soon followed. One of the most readable and informative of the early chorographies was Richard Carew 's Survey of Cornwall ( 1602 ). John Norden planned to write a series of county chorographies, illustrated by small maps, but he was frustrated by the lack of a patron. He managed to publish his descriptions of Middlesex ( 1593 ) and Hertfordshire ( 1598 ), but his accounts of Essex, Surrey, Sussex, Hampshire, the Isle of Wight, the Channel Islands, Kent, Northamptonshire, Cornwall, and possibly Norfolk and Suffolk never got further than...

Welsh Local and Family History

Welsh Local and Family History   Quick reference

D. Huw Owen

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,425 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in †place‐ and river‐names, and in the topography of Wales. The second volume of John Speed 's Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine ( 1611 ), featuring Wales, was influenced by the writings of Llwyd and Saxton's maps, but Speed himself was responsible for the town plans which accompanied the county maps, and the sixteen town views which accompanied his map of Wales: one for each of the four episcopal centres and the main town in twelve shires. The members of the North Wales gentry who provided John Speed with additional information for a revised...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,151 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...modern physics’. This attempt, Jeffrey thought, would not succeed. Its supporters were misled by drawing a ‘false analogy’ between the science of mind and the sciences of physics and chemistry. Not much improvement could be expected in the science of mind from trying to adopt the ‘plan of investigation’ used in the physical sciences. For we have to distinguish between those fields in which we can conduct experiments and those in which we can only make observations. In physics, for example, we deal with substances that are under our control; the enquirer can...

Language

Language   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...knowledge of the ‘best’ English writers and whose private income and stake in the land could guarantee that his language was not infected by idiosyncrasies related to fashionable taste, the pursuit of a particular trade, or confinement to a particular locality. Originally, in the Plan of a Dictionary ( 1747 ), Johnson had seemed confident of his ability ‘to fix the English language’. The completed project is presented with a more melancholy air which mourns the inevitability of change in a living language. Nevertheless, Johnson tried to slow the decay....

Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...over them; they lose all vigour and industry”.’ Wollstonecraft believed that excessively strict parental rule might itself account for the weakness of women, who were subjected to it more rigorously than boys. However, Locke's demand that fathers become less concerned with discipline and more involved in the education of their children made patriarchy gentler, while ensuring that fathers retained all their power. Although Locke's plan assumed that parents would work together, in fact the father assumed the dominant educational role, with the mother's role...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...It was still possible for individuals to cultivate more than one of these sciences, but there was no longer any meaningful framework, such as Newtonianism, in which to integrate all their specialized knowledge. In 1817 Coleridge tried to retain such a philosophical unity in his plan for the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana . His map of knowledge displayed the relations between sciences and prescribed the order in which the treatises on each should be read, starting with the ‘formal’ sciences such as logic, geometry, and grammar, moving to the physical,...

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