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academies, Service

OverviewU.S. Military AcademyU.S. Naval AcademyU.S. Air Force AcademyU.S. Coast Guard Academy Overview U.S. Military Academy U.S. Naval Academy U.S. ...

Academies, Service

Academies, Service   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., Service Overview U.S. Military Academy U.S. Naval Academy U.S. Air Force Academy U.S. Coast Guard Academy Academies, Service: Overview The primary function of the military service academies is to educate and train professional officers for the nation's standing armed forces. With the development of modern standing armies and more complex military technology, the modern military academy originated in Western Europe in the eighteenth century, established by royal governments to train younger sons of the nobility or veterans as line officers. Other...

Military Service Academies.

Military Service Academies.   Reference library

Todd Forney

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
581 words

...faith in the service academy system. The Cold War Era, however, saw the end of the service academies’ monopoly as the sole providers of regular officers. New programs like Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) and Officer Candidate School (OCS), based in civilian colleges and universities, eventually provided the bulk of regular officers to both services. The academies began emphasizing instead their role in maintaining service traditions and values and in providing officers who remained for an entire career. The U.S. Air Force Academy was established at...

Military Service Academies

Military Service Academies   Reference library

Todd Forney and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...faith in the service academy system. The Cold War Era, however, saw the end of the service academies’ monopoly as the sole providers of regular officers. New programs like Reserve Officers Training Corps ( ROTC ) and Officer Candidate School ( OCS ), based in civilian colleges and universities, eventually provided the bulk of regular officers to both services. The academies began emphasizing instead their role in maintaining service traditions and values and in providing officers who remained for an entire career. The U.S. Air Force Academy was established...

academies, Service

academies, Service  

Reference type:
Overview Page
OverviewU.S. Military AcademyU.S. Naval AcademyU.S. Air Force AcademyU.S. Coast Guard AcademyOverviewU.S. Military AcademyU.S. Naval AcademyU.S. Air Force AcademyU.S. Coast Guard AcademyThe primary ...
Military Service Academies.

Military Service Academies.  

Americans have long had an ambivalent relationship with their military service academies. In general, they appreciate traditions that emphasize patriotism, hard work, and discipline, but are ...
service academy

service academy   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... academy a military academy serving one of the four branches of the U.S. armed forces. See military academy...

service academy

service academy  

A military academy serving one of the four branches of the U.S. armed forces.See military academy.
Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Disraeli ( 1804–81 ). Few such prominent authors dealt with comparable institutions elsewhere in Britain. (Among these rare instances were Mrs *Barbauld 's elegies for the Dissenting academy at Warrington, and Walter *Scott 's less flattering vignettes of ‘Glasgow College’ in his novel Guy Mannering , 1815 .) In the mid-1770s, *Wedgwood potteries supplied a dinner service for Catherine the Great of Russia which displayed views, the catalogue explained, of ‘the most remarkable buildings…and other national curiosities which distinguish Britain’. Only two...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... contributed to the landmark events in the history of the Serbian book. These included the foundation of the Royal Serbian Press in Belgrade in 1832 and the opening of the National Library of *Serbia and of the Serbian Literacy Society, the predecessor of the present Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts ( 1892 ). During World War I, significant numbers of Serbian books and periodicals were published in France, Greece, and Switzerland. The national book industry quickly recovered, only to collapse again during World War II, when the partisans’ illegal presses...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...periodical publications, and recognition of the exclusive rights of authors and their heirs. Responsibility for censorship rested with the cultural institutions of government, such as the royal academies. A law of 1768 enshrined the intervention of the Inquisition in the printing of books. The Imprenta Real collaborated with other institutions such as the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, producing such publications as Retratos de los españoles ilustres ( 1791 ), a monumental work that engendered pride in the Spanish Enlightenment. This attitude was reflected in...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of his native county. From these early initiatives, efforts were made to coordinate and rationalize the services provided in the 1990s, and to develop a network which would provide centralized marketing. The government‐sponsored Irish Genealogical Project has been set up to coordinate the plethora of county, diocesan, and local centres. In Northern Ireland the Ulster Historical Foundation is the principal genealogical society. The standard and service provided by the genealogical centres remains uneven. The best of them are highly professional; others are...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in London. Wedgwood went further and opened a permanent London saleroom sufficiently large to welcome the ‘shoals’ of ladies who came to inspect a changing display of dinner services laid out on tables and vases set against the walls. The urbane presence of his partner Bentley undoubtedly contributed to its success. In 1774 visitors flocked to see the 952-piece dinner and dessert service ordered by the Empress Catherine of Russia and decorated with hand-painted views of English architectural landmarks and beauty spots. In 1790 they came to marvel at the...

40 The History of the Book in China

40 The History of the Book in China   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,923 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...produced editions for the revived political and educational bureaucracies, as well as for the growing number of civil service examination candidates. When their efforts failed to meet demands, commercial publishers eagerly supplied the market with comparable publications. Rong Liulang (12 th century) is an example of a commercial publisher who relocated from the former capital of Kaifeng to Hangzhou. The Southern Song civil service network ensured that locations of official publishing were widespread, and in each of these locations and beyond, private...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...made visible to all but the few who had access to *paintings [27] and drawings, or to ceremonial forms of representation. Prints provided an almost limitless range of services, from the reproduction and multiplication of works of art to the commemoration of public hangings in broad-sides sold at these events. All *advertising beyond a simple letterpress announcement required the services of a printmaker, and the religious life of ordinary people was reinforced by mass-produced, single-sheet, moralizing broadsides set around a relief-printed image. From its...

Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...universities of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were London ( 1826 ) and Durham ( 1837 ). During the late 17th and the 18th centuries, however, a broader education (including science) was available at some of the dissenting academies , notably those at Northampton and Warrington. Many students went on from these academies to Scottish or Continental universities, especially Leiden. Concern over the lack of educational provision for the children of the poor led to the formation of charity schools. See M. G. Jones , The Charity School Movement (1938). ...

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,966 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in 1343 , its Mishnaic text shows significant textual differences, far beyond the realm of variant spellings or even wordings, from MSS that are considered to represent a reliable textual tradition of the Mishnah (such as the famous Kaufmann Mishnah MS in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest). The rarity of medieval MSS, even fragments, of the Talmud is generally believed to be the combined result of its enormous size, the strength of oral transmission within Judaism, and, notably, Christian aggression, which resulted (for example) in book...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the posthumous Pensées ( 1669 )—but became rich in the process. The policies of Louis XIV —genuine ‘cultural policies’ ahead of their time—also reveal both great determination to control print and ultimate powerlessness to do so. His measures included the creation of more academies ( 1663–71 ), the incorporation of writers (Boileau, Racine, La Fontaine) into an all-encompassing system of court patronage, the reduction and eventual limiting of the number of authorized printers, and imposing a cap on the number of provincial printing offices. In 1667 ,...

41 The History of the Book in Korea

41 The History of the Book in Korea   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

... survey of Korean types, Early Korean Typography . The finest editions continued to be court-sponsored works, supervised by the Office of Paper Production, the Office of Movable Type, and the Office for Woodblock Printing. By the late Chosŏn, private individuals, Confucian academies ( sŏwŏn ), local scholars, and authors all sponsored the printing of books, and some commissioned new types. Despite the close interest of 15 th -century Korean kings in printing technology, the early introduction of cast metal-type printing led neither to an expansion of...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of Cambrai ( 1508–16 ), all teaching had ceased; in 1528 , therefore, this new magistrature was created to reopen the university and oversee its running. Elective by nature and considered prestigious, the Riformatori became the equivalent of a culture ministry with powers over academies, libraries, and the book trade. Printers had to submit any work they intended to publish for approval, and permission followed swiftly—as long as nothing was found against religion, against princes (i.e. other governments), or against morality in general. With the promulgation...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... William Horsley ( 1774–1858 ) undoubtedly produced fine examples of the genre, a serious link with the glorious cathedral and madrigal traditions; but this proved no basis for national revival. More promising initiatives were a summer English Opera House ( 1816 ), the Royal Academy of Music ( 1823 ), and the Philharmonic Society's ‘trials’ of new compositions: here Cipriani Potter could confidently challenge foreign symphonists such as Ferdinand *Ries and Louis Spohr ( 1784–1859 ). However, the only really enduring British contribution was made by a...

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