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Academies

Subject: Religion

An established gathering of Jewish scholars. The Talmudic terms are yeshivot (‘sitting’), also bet ha-midrash (Heb., ‘House of Study’), bet din gadol (Heb., ‘the great house of law’), and ...

academies

academies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
53 words

... are societies or institutions for the cultivation and promotion of literature, the arts or science, or of some particular branch of science such as medicine, for example, the Académie de Médecine, Paris ; and the National Academy of Sciences, Washington. After 50 years of debate, Britain acquired an academy of medicine in 1998...

Academies

Academies   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
143 words

... . An established gathering of Jewish scholars. The Talmudic terms are yeshivot (‘sitting’), also bet ha-midrash (Heb., ‘House of Study’) , bet din gadol (Heb., ‘the great house of law’) , and metivta rabba (Aram., ‘the great session’). After the destruction of the Temple in 70 ce , several academies were founded, the most famous being that of Johanan b. Zakkai at Jabneh . Later academics were established in Babylonia at Sura and Pumbedita which survived until approximately the middle of the 11th cent. ce . The Academy on High (...

academies

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
1,418 words

...academy to be called ‘Minerva's Museum’, but again the plan was not realized. The Geneva Academy founded by Calvin in 1559 was an educational institution designed to produce godly preachers and governors; its first rector was Beza , and the academic staff (and some of the students) were recruited en bloc from Lausanne. The Academy was run on strict disciplinarian lines, and on occasion students were sentenced to death for apostacy or libelling their teachers. The Academy grew rapidly, and by the time Calvin died in 1564 , the Academy had 300...

Academies

Academies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
142 words

... Associations first founded in Italy in the 15th century to promote intellectual and cultural debate on a wide range of topics. The earliest, like that of Ficino in Florence, were informal groups of humanist scholars who aimed to revive the ancient Platonic academy and its traditions of dialogue and debate. In the 16th century these informal groupings gave way to more formally constituted bodies, often characterized by punning titles, nicknames for members, witty emblems, and mottoes. Among the best known of this period are the Intronati (Siena), the ...

ACADEMIES

ACADEMIES   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,230 words

...were two leading academies: those of Sura and Pumbedita; both of these relocated to Baghdad at about the end of the ninth century but retained their names. At times, one or the other academy was temporarily split into two, when its scholars were unable to agree on the appointment of a ga’on; the academy of Sura was closed throughout most of the second half of the tenth century. A third academy was officially headed by the exilarch ; it had close ties with the academy of Sura, and it appears that when geonic sources refer to “the two academies,” it is these two...

Academies

Academies   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,226 words

...Belle Arti in 1748 . Despite attempts to restore earlier academies (such as Vincenzo Cuoco 's revival of the Neapolitan Pontaniana in 1808 ), few ancient academies survive and thrive today. During the Fascist period, academics undesirable to the regime (such as Benedetto Croce ) were excluded from national academies. In 1945 Croce's eulogy of the Arcadia (which had kept his name on its books during the Fascist period) testified to its free-thinking character, and that of some other academies, at a time when the Fascists were attempting to collect...

Academies

Academies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
11,662 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Prague, 1785 ). The reorganization of a number of other academies was projected. The term Akademie (“academy”) denoted not “universal scholarly society,” but primarily a higher, specialized school. It was the common term for “university” and inspired designations such as “knight academies,” “trade academies,” or “mining academies.” Also applied to public concerts, it acquired the broader sense of “cultural event.” In the 1760s, Patriotische Gesellschaften (“patriotic societies”) followed the academies. By 1800 , four to five thousand members were active in...

Academies

Academies   Reference library

J. M. Opal

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and by motivating their students in new ways, academies led a major shift in the curriculum, pedagogy, and social meaning of education in the new republic. For most of the eighteenth century, the term “academy” meant either a national institution of high culture or a private school for a particular group or denomination. In Britain, religious minorities or dissenters such as Presbyterians and Quakers sometimes formed academies, while in 1751 Benjamin Franklin helped to design a Philadelphia Academy. Irish Presbyterians also formed several dozens of...

academies

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The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,718 words

... . The Academy was an olive grove outside Athens where Plato and his successors taught philosophy. His school of philosophy was therefore known as ‘The Academy’. In the Italian Renaissance the word began to be applied to almost any philosophical or literary circle. In the 16th century academies became more formal, with established rules of procedure, and began to cover a greater range of activities. It was in this atmosphere that there appeared the first academies of art. By a natural extension of current Renaissance terminology the word ‘academy’...

dissenting academies

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The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
111 words

...academies In the later 17th century various Nonconformist preachers started to provide education for those who wished to enter the ministry and for the sons of members of their congregations. These academies became leading educational institutions after the Toleration Act 1689 , but gradually declined in the middle and later years of the 18th century. Thus, the Attercliffe Academy, on the outskirts of Sheffield, lasted from 1686 to 1750 . For a time the best academies were regarded as superior to the universities, so that they attracted some pupils...

dissenting academies

dissenting academies   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
56 words

...academies . In the later 17th century various Nonconformist preachers started to provide education for those who wished to enter the ministry and for the sons of members of their congregations. These academies became leading educational institutions after the Toleration Act of 1689 , but gradually declined in the middle and later years of the 18th...

dissenting academies

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
60 words

...academies The Act of Uniformity ( 1662 ) excluded dissenting ministers from their posts. Many, out of necessity, became teachers. Dissenting academies were particularly popular in Devon, Lancashire, London, and Wales, some of the most distinguished being at Tewkesbury, Northampton, and Warrington. They were much used by nonconformists who could not take the oaths at Oxford or...

Academies, Service

Academies, Service   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., Service Overview U.S. Military Academy U.S. Naval Academy U.S. Air Force Academy U.S. Coast Guard Academy Academies, Service: Overview The primary function of the military service academies is to educate and train professional officers for the nation's standing armed forces. With the development of modern standing armies and more complex military technology, the modern military academy originated in Western Europe in the eighteenth century, established by royal governments to train younger sons of the nobility or veterans as line officers. Other...

Dissenting academies

Dissenting academies   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...academies . Excluded from the grammar schools and from the two universities, Dissenters developed in their own ‘academies’ an educational system that exploited their want of charter and encouraged vigorous, independent-minded speculation [ see *education, 17 ]. Dissenting academies varied considerably, remaining an extension of their instituting principals and independent of the church elders whose sons they educated. As it happens, those principals included some of the most progressive intellects of their respective periods, from John Jennings at...

dissenting academies

dissenting academies   Reference library

Peter Gordon

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
114 words

...academies . The Act of Uniformity ( 1662 ) excluded dissenting ministers from their posts. Many, out of necessity, became teachers or tutors. Dissenting academies were particularly popular in Devon, Lancashire, London, and Wales, some of the most distinguished being at Tewkesbury, Northampton, and Warrington. They were much used by nonconformists who could not take the oaths at Oxford or Cambridge. Girls’ as well as boys’ schools were provided and commercial schools for the sons of city merchants set up. The curriculum, at first classically based,...

dissenting academies

dissenting academies   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,680 words

...on the history of the academies, argued that the ‘one grand leading principle’ of the academies was the Protestant one of ‘the inalienable right of private judgement’. For him, they were characterized by the open and candid profession of faith irrespective of ‘creeds or systems of human devising’. Yet some academies were more emphatic in their teaching of orthodoxy and required subscription to creeds and formularies, and generally speaking were less favourably disposed towards the teaching of philosophy. An extreme was the Gosport Academy ( 1780 ?) where no...

academies, military

academies, military   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., military The emergence of military academies is closely associated with the development of the concept of a professional officer corps. The claim of career officers to be regarded as members of a distinct profession rests largely on their having received a formal education in their own specialization, while at the same time being indoctrinated with the social attitudes expected of those in their chosen way of life. The first military academy in Asia, and probably the world, was established in Vietnam in the 14th century. The term ‘military academy’...

academies of dance

academies of dance   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Dance (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
70 words

...academies of dance Several countries followed the model of the French academies of the 16th and 17th centuries by setting up institutions designed to maintain and perfect standards in the arts. One of the most famous dance academies is the Imperiale Regia Accademia di Ballo which was established in 1812 by Benedetto Ricci in Milan, attached to the Teatro alla Scala. London's Royal Academy of Dancing was opened in 1920...

Military Service Academies.

Military Service Academies.   Reference library

Todd Forney

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
581 words

...faith in the service academy system. The Cold War Era, however, saw the end of the service academies’ monopoly as the sole providers of regular officers. New programs like Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) and Officer Candidate School (OCS), based in civilian colleges and universities, eventually provided the bulk of regular officers to both services. The academies began emphasizing instead their role in maintaining service traditions and values and in providing officers who remained for an entire career. The U.S. Air Force Academy was established at...

Military Service Academies

Military Service Academies   Reference library

Todd Forney and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in the service academy system. The Cold War Era, however, saw the end of the service academies’ monopoly as the sole providers of regular officers. New programs like Reserve Officers Training Corps ( ROTC ) and Officer Candidate School ( OCS ), based in civilian colleges and universities, eventually provided the bulk of regular officers to both services. The academies began emphasizing instead their role in maintaining service traditions and values and in providing officers who remained for an entire career. The U.S. Air Force Academy was established at...

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