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Empress Zewditu

Subject: History

(1875–1930; r. 1916–1930), the only woman known to have ruled Ethiopia in her own right. Zewditu, the daughter of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia, succeeded her father to the ...

Zewditu, Empress

Zewditu, Empress (1875–1930)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
620 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for the three middle decades of her century. Zewditu had never been fully in control of her own destiny. The daughter of one of her father's early consorts, at the age of six or seven she was married to Araya Sellasé , the son of the Emperor Yohännes , Menelik's overlord. Araya died some six years later. Zewditu was married twice more before her stepmother, Empress T'aitu Betoul , arranged Zewditu's marriage to T’aitu's nephew Gugsa . Zewditu's only child, a daughter, died shortly after birth. Zewditu's public persona was conservative and withdrawn....

Zewditu Menilek

Zewditu Menilek (1876)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
883 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Zewditu with the northern lords in the following years. Zewditu Menilek . Empress Zewditu Menilek, right, and an Ethiopian priest, Ethiopia, 1916 . (Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library) After Araya died in mid-1888, Zewditu returned to her father’s court. There, she developed a strong relationship with Menilek’s last wife, Taytu Betul. Zewditu’s second husband was Wag Seyyum Gwangul Zegwe, whom she divorced in 1891 to marry Dejazmach Webe Atnaf Seged, from Mechcha. She married her fourth husband, Ras Gugsa Wele, in 1900/01. Only one of Zewditu’s...

Empress Zewditu

Empress Zewditu  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
(1875–1930; r. 1916–1930),the only woman known to have ruled Ethiopia in her own right. Zewditu, the daughter of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia, succeeded her father to the throne ...
T'aitu Bitoul

T'aitu Bitoul (c. 1850–1918)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
860 words

...controlled access to him, and few people other than his doctors saw him. T'aitu herself acted on Menelik's behalf, making appointments and demotions and issuing edicts. In 1909 , in spite of T'aitu's active promotion of the claims of Zewditu, Menelik publicly proclaimed Iyasu, his grandson, son of a deceased sister of Zewditu, as his heir apparent. By the end of the year he was no longer conscious. Menelik lingered in a comatose state until 1913 . T'aitu did not last so long. She had numerous enemies, not least the nobles of Menelik's home province of Shewa....

Haile Selassie

Haile Selassie   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
626 words

...the result of his European contacts. These contacts also eventually helped him to garner support in his bid for the imperial throne. In 1916 he overthrew Lij Yasu , Emperor Menelik's chosen successor, installed Menelik's daughter, Zewditu , as figurehead queen, and began his long rule at the age of 26. Upon Zewditu's death in 1930 , he ascended the throne under the name Haile Selassie. A year later he promulgated a “modern” constitution to undergird the reforms which he had initiated, undermining the power of the regional potentates. The main reforms...

Ethiopia

Ethiopia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
944 words
Illustration(s):
1

...postal and telegraph services. He was succeeded by his grandson Lej Iyasu ( 1913–16 ), who was deposed for his alleged laxity in Christian devotion. Power passed to Menelik's daughter, Empress Zewditu ( 1916–30 ), who ruled with her nephew Ras Tafari Mekonnen as her regent. The latter was crowned Emperor as Haile Selassie I upon Zewditu's death in 1930 . His efforts to hasten his country's economic development were accelerated during the period of Italian occupation which followed the Abyssinian War , when schools and roads were built with...

Gudit, Queen of Agao

Gudit, Queen of Agao   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
443 words

...the Damot people have been absorbed into the Amharic‐speaking population and no longer retain traditions of this period of their history. [ See also Africa, subentry 5000 b.c.e. –1000 c.e. ; Christianity ; Mennen, Empress ; Mentewwab, Empress ; T'aitu Bitoul ; and Zewditu, Empress .] Bibliography For a masterly account of the principal sources, see Taddesse Tamrat, Church and State in Ethiopia, 1270–1527 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1972). Donald...

Mennen, Empress

Mennen, Empress   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
584 words

...representative of the Wärräshék princely family. Although many of its members were Muslims, Mennen is an example of the dynasty's conversion to Orthodox Christianity. [ See also Christianity ; Gudit, Queen of Agao ; Mentewwab, Empress ; Monarchy ; T'aitu Bitoul ; and Zewditu, Empress .] Bibliography Information on Mennen is scattered through primary sources and a handful of monographs. Perhaps the most accessible of the latter are Sven Rubenson, The Survival of Ethiopian Independence (London: Heinemann, 1976), and Mordechai Abir, Ethiopia: The Era...

Mentewwab, Empress

Mentewwab, Empress (r. 1730–1769)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
679 words

...might find in European painting of that time, it is a powerful representation of the empress that, as Claire Bosc‐Tiessé ( 2004 ) notes, associates her with the Virgin Mary. [ See also Christianity ; Gudit, Queen of Agao ; Mennen, Empress ; Monarchy ; T'aitu Bitoul ; and Zewditu, Empress .] Bibliography The principal original source for Mentewwab and her career is a chronicle in the classical language Ge’ez, edited and translated into French by Ignatius Guidi , Annales regum Iyāsu II et Iyo᾽’as (Paris: Leroux, 1910–1912), which is available in reference...

Tadesse

Tadesse (154)   Reference library

Dictionary of American Family Names

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
32 words

... (154) Ethiopian: unexplained. Given Names Ethiopian 71%; Jewish 5%. Getachew (3), Belay (2), Benyam (2), Berhane (2), Bruke (2), Girma (2), Tesfaye (2), Yeshi (2), Zewditu (2), Aklilu , Alemu , Amare ; Aron...

Taytu Betul

Taytu Betul (1853)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
862 words

...main problem for an otherwise politically successful Empress was her childlessness. She played the role of mother to Menilek’s daughter, Zewditu, the future Empress of Ethiopia, exercising a strong influence over her. She created another political union between her and Menilek’s families when she succeeded in giving Zewditu as wife to her nephew, ras Gugsa Wele. This move was interpreted as a step toward placing Zewditu or Gugsa Wele on the throne, which would then lead to Taytu’s ruling in their name and taking full control over the country after Menilek’s...

Menen Asfaw

Menen Asfaw (1889)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
795 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Ababa, and after Haile Selassie’s funeral in 2000 , her remains were moved to her sarcophagus in the north transept next to those of her husband. [ See also Haile Selassie I ; Iyasu Mikael ; Mikael Ali ; and Zewditu Menilek .] bibliography Gebre-Igziabiher Elyas . Prowess, Piety and Politics: The Chronicle of Abeto Iyasu and Empress Zewditu of Ethiopia (1909–1930) . Edited and translated by Reidulf Knut Molvaer . Cologne, Germany: Rüdiger Köppe, 1994. Marcus, Harold . Haile Selassie I: The Formative Years, 1892–1936 . Berkeley: University of...

Tekle Haymanot

Tekle Haymanot (1917)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
771 words

...the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, was born on 18 September 1917 in Mahedere Maryam, Gonder; his birth name was Melaku. His parents were Welde Mikael Wondimu and Zewditu Kasa. Welde Mikael met Zewditu in Yerez, Gojjam, when he was in a military service in the area, and took her to Mahdere Maryam, Gonder, where she gave birth to Tekle. But because of the natural death of the father, Zewditu went back to her place of origin with the baby. Tekle began traditional church education near his home and later, after the death of his mother, in Yerez Michael near...

Iyasu Mikael

Iyasu Mikael (1898)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,036 words

...officer of Menilek, who acted as regent. In 1910 , Menilek became completely unable to rule, and the competition for power was open. The queen, Taytu, wife of Menilek, intrigued against Iyasu and Tesemma. She aimed at promoting her own nephew, Ras Gugsa, who was married to Zewditu, the daughter of Menilek. But Taytu failed in her plans, and she was removed from power by her opponents. Tesemma was victorious, but he died in 1911; and Iyasu, aged 14, was in position to seize power alone. But he could not act as the new ruler before the old and powerless...

Haile, Selassie I

Haile, Selassie I (1892)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...his later years, he remained a symbol of African dignity both within and outside the continent, and he is likely to be remembered as one of the greatest of twentieth- century Africans. [ See also Aklilu Habte Weld ; Iyasu Mikael ; Mengistu Haile Mariam ; Menilek II ; and Zewditu Menilek . ] bibliography Clapham, Christopher . Haile-Selassie’s Government . London: Longman, 1969. Haile Sellassie I. My Life and Ethiopia’s Progress, 1892–1937 . Translated and edited by Edward Ullendorff . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976. Haile Sellassie I. My...

Jootee Tulluu

Jootee Tulluu (1855)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
962 words

...literally child) Iyasu Mikael, Menilek’s designated successor, reinstated Jootee to governorship, and they established a working relationship. In 1916 , Iyasu was deposed in a coup d’état. Jootee by default became a collaborator with a disgraced prince. In 1918 , Empress Zewditu appointed Dejazmach (later Ras ) Birru Wolde Gebriel the first of many Amhara rulers over Leeqaa Qellem. Jootee died shortly afterwards. Leeqaa Qellem lost its autonomy and became an occupied land—ironically, ruled in the same way as regions that had rejected peaceful...

Afewerq, Gebre Iyesus

Afewerq, Gebre Iyesus (1868)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
755 words

...these opinions in his book Guide du Voyageur en Abyssinie . He supported Lij Iyasu’s accession to the throne after Menilek, whose biography he also wrote during the same period in Italy. Unfortunately, Lij Iyasu did not stay long in power; he was deposed and replaced by Zewditu, the emperor’s daughter, with Teferi, (later Haile Selassie I) as regent and heir designate. The new leadership invited Afewerq to join the government and serve the country; he accepted the offer and went on a trade mission to the United States in 1918 . In 1922 he was...

Tesemma Eshete

Tesemma Eshete (1876)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
736 words

...player and the founder of the Ethiopian Football Federation and other sports organizations. [ See also Iyasu Mikael ; and Menilek II . ] bibliography Elyas, Gebre-Igziabiher and Reidulf K. Molvaer . Prowess, Piety and Politics. The Chronicle of Abeto Iyasu and Empress Zewditu of Ethiopia (1909–1930) . Cologne, Germany: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 1994. Pankhurst, Richard . Economic History of Ethiopia 1800–1935 , Addis Ababa: Haile Selassie I University Press, 1968. Tesemma, Tadele Yidneckatchew . The Life of Nagadras Tesemma Eshete (mimeo). Addis Ababa,...

Wubé Hayle Maryam

Wubé Hayle Maryam (1799)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,353 words

...future heir to the throne, until his premature death. Much later, niece T’aytu Bet’ul married Emperor Menilek II; she illegitimately assumed the regency from 1909 to 1910 , until she lost power in a coup d’état. Her nephew, Ras Gugsa Wale Bet’ul, married Menilek’s daughter, Zewditu, but was divorced by force when she was declared empress in 1916 ; he died in battle against Ras Teferi (Haile Selassie I) in 1930 . During Haile Selassie’s long reign, Wubé’s family disappeared from the political scene. [ See also Haile Selassie I ; Menilek II ; Taytu...

Ethiopia, Poetry of

Ethiopia, Poetry of   Reference library

R. K. Molvaer

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,641 words

...Social and Cultural Life as Reflected in Amharic Fictional Literature ca. 1930–1974 (1980) ; Mengistu Lemma , Yegi’iz qinéyat, yenne t’ibeb qirs (1987) ; Gebre-Igziabiher Elyas and R. K. Molvaer , Prowess, Piety and Politics: The Chronicle of Abeto Iyasu and Empress Zewditu of Ethiopia (1909–1930) (1994) ; R. K. Molvaer , Socialization and Social Control in Ethiopia (1995) ; “About the Abortive Coup Attempt in Addis Abeba from 5 Tahsas to 8 Tahsas 1953 (14–17 December 1960),” Northeast African Studies 3 (1996) ; Black Lions: The Creative...

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