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Xenophon

(c. 435–c. 354 bc), Greek historian, writer, and military leader. From 401 he fought with Cyrus the Younger against Artaxerxes II, and led an army of 10,000 Greek mercenaries in ...

Xenophon

Xenophon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6 words

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Xenophon

Xenophon (c.430–354 bc)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
60 words

... ( c. 430–354 bc ) Greek historian . Xenophon studied with Socrates , whose teaching he described in Memorabilia . His best-known work is Anabasis , an account of his march with a Greek mercenary army across Asia Minor in 401–399 bc in support of a pretender to the Persian throne. Other works include a history of Greece from 411 to 362 bc...

Xenophon

Xenophon (c.428–c.354)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
93 words

... ( c .428– c .354 bc ) Greek general and historian . Xenophon is remembered philosophically for a number of writings in which he sets out to rehabilitate Socrates from the various charges that led to his death. His Socrates tends to be a more reasonable kind of chap than that of Plato ; for example, instead of embracing the Socratic paradox of identifying virtue with knowledge, he is aware that a training of the sentiments may be needed in order to keep knowledge of what one should do vivid in one’s mind at the crucial...

Xenophon

Xenophon (430–after 355bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,580 words

...(2001): 87–118. Challenges the methods behind Straussian readings of Xenophon's works and has a full bibliography of Strauss on Xenophon. Due, Bodil . The “Cyropaedia”: Xenophon's Aims and Methods . Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press, 1989. Gautier, Léopold . La langue de Xénophon . Geneva, Switzerland: Georg, 1911. The only work on Xenophon's language. Gray, Vivienne J. , ed. Oxford Readings in Xenophon . Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming. Gray, Vivienne J. , ed. Xenophon on Government . Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University...

Xenophon

Xenophon   Reference library

Hamish Aird

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... , writer in Ancient greece in the late 5th century bc famous for his Anabasis . In the Economics , a dialogue between a farmer, Ischomachos, and the famous philosopher Socrates, the planting and care of vines is discussed: vines should be planted in well-dug earth, at an angle, and the earth should be trodden down around the vine. Hamish...

Xenophon

Xenophon (c.354 bc)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
457 words

... ( b Athens , c. 428/427 bc ; d ?Athens , c. 354 bc ). Greek general, historian and writer . From a wealthy Athenian family, he became an enthusiastic follower of Socrates. Shortly before Socrates’ death, he left Athens . He served as a general under Cyrus in Asia Minor and later accepted the patronage of Sparta , where he settled and wrote most of his major works. His writings include histories ( Hellenica, Anabasis ) and narratives of Socrates’ philosophical activity ( Memorabilia, Apology, Oeconomicus, Symposium ). Xenophon’s ...

Xenophon

Xenophon (2)   Reference library

Ewen Lyall Bowie

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
452 words

... (2) , Greek novelist ( see novel, greek ), author of The Ephesian story of Anthia and Habrocomes (Τὰ κατὰ Ἀνθίαν καὶ Ἁβροκόμην Ἐφεσιακά). Mention (2. 13. 3) of an eirenarch, an office not attested before Trajan , together with the early place in the genre's development suggested by Xenophon's unambitious treatment of his story, indicates a date between ad 100 and 150 : so far no papyri have been published. The Suda calls him a historian and alleges other works, specifying only one, On the city of Ephesus , and gives Ephesus as his...

Xenophon

Xenophon (435–c.354)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
124 words

... ( c . 435– c .354 bc ) Greek historian , writer , and military leader . He was born in Athens and became a disciple and friend of Socrates. In 401 he joined the campaign of the Persian prince Cyrus the Younger against Artaxerxes II; when Cyrus was killed north of Babylon, Xenophon led an army of 10,000 Greek mercenaries in their retreat to the Black Sea, a journey of about 1500 km (900 miles). His historical works include the Anabasis , an account of the campaign with Cyrus and its aftermath, and the Hellenica , a history of Greece. Among...

Xenophon

Xenophon (c.430–353 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... returned to Greece Xenophon found himself fighting his fellow Athenians at Koroneia . In exile, he settled near Olympia, but moved to Corinth after Leuctra . There was reconciliation with Athens: Cavalry Commander and Ways and Means show sympathetic concern for the city, and his son Gryllus died fighting in the Athenian cavalry at Mantineia . In semi-retirement Xenophon wrote historical narratives, Socratic texts, and miscellaneous technical and (broadly) political works. Common features are the importance of Xenophon's personal experience...

Xenophon

Xenophon (428–354)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
184 words

... ( c. 428–354 bc ) Athenian writer and associate of Socrates . He joined the Greek mercenaries recruited by the Persian Cyrus the younger in a failed rebellion, then enlisted as a Spartan mercenary, fought against the Athenians, and was formally exiled. His banishment was later annulled and he returned to Athens. His many works include Anabasis (the march up country), the first-hand story of the Greeks' expedition and their epic retreat to the Black Sea; Hellenica , a continuation of Thucydides ' history; Cyropaedia (the education of Cyrus)...

Xenophon

Xenophon (1)   Reference library

Christopher J. Tuplin

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,437 words

...Idées sociales et politiques de Xénophon (1947); H. Breitenbach , Historische Anschauungsformen Xenophons (1950) and RE 9 a , cols 1567–2052; E. Delebecque , Essai sur la vie de Xénophon (1957); J. K. Anderson , Xenophon (1974); W. E. Higgins , Xenophon the Athenian (1977); S. Hirsch , The Friendship of the Barbarians (1985); G. Proietti , Xenophon's Sparta: An Introduction (1987); C. J. Tuplin (ed.) , Xenophon and his World (2004), and in T. Figueira, Spartan Society (2004), 251–282; K. Münscher , Xenophon in der gr.-röm. Literatur ...

Xenophon

Xenophon (c.428–354 bc)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
130 words

... ( c. 428–354 bc ) Athenian writer and associate of Socrates . His many works include Anabasis (the march up country), the first-hand story of Greek mercenaries in a failed rebellion; Hellenica , a continuation of Thucydides ' history; Cyropaedia (the education of Cyrus), a work of edifying fiction, describing the formation of a perfect ruler, the Persian King Cyrus the Great; and a group of Socratic memoirs: Apology , supposed to have been spoken by Socrates at his trial, Memorabilia , which relates anecdotes of Socrates' conversation, and ...

Xenophon

Xenophon   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,958 words

...as a ‘philosopher’ or mercenary‐leader, Xenophon produced a large output, all known parts of which survive. Most works fall into three categories: long (quasi‐) historical narratives, Socratic texts, and technical treatises. There are also four monographs, not unrelated to the major categories. Many are the earliest (or earliest surviving) examples of particular genres . The clearest common features are (1) intimate relationship with Xenophon's personal experiences and (2) taste for didactic discourse. Xenophon's moral system is conventional, underpinned...

Xenophon

Xenophon   Reference library

Christopher J. Tuplin

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,890 words

...Many are the earliest (or earliest surviving) examples of particular genres . The clearest common features are (1) intimate relationship with Xenophon’s personal experiences and (2) taste for didactic discourse. Xenophon’s moral system is conventional, underpinned by belief in the gods and the importance of omen and ritual: divine power (often anonymous and not infrequently singular) is everywhere in Xenophon’s writings, though not absolutely stultifyingly—when consulting the oracle at Delphi ( see delphic oracle ) about going to Asia he famously framed...

Xenophon

Xenophon   Quick reference

Christopher J. Tuplin

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,796 words

...Many are the earliest (or earliest surviving) examples of particular genres. The clearest common features are (1) intimate relationship with Xenophon's personal experiences and (2) taste for didactic discourse. Xenophon's moral system is conventional, underpinned by belief in the gods and the importance of omen and ritual: divine power (often anonymous and not infrequently singular) is everywhere in Xenophon's writings, though not absolutely stultifyingly—when consulting the oracle at Delphi about going to Asia he famously framed the question so as to...

Xenophon

Xenophon (c.428–c.354 bc)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
23 words

...0 Xenophon c. 428 – c. 354 bc Greek historian Thalassa, thalassa. The sea! the sea! Anabasis bk. 4, ch. 7, sect. 24 sea ! the...

Xenophon

Xenophon (c.428–c.354 bc)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
26 words

... Xenophon c. 428 – c. 354 bc Greek historian and military leader Thalassa thalassa. The sea! the sea! Anabasis bk. 4, ch. 7, sect. 24 sea ! the...

Xenophon

Xenophon (?428?354 )   Reference library

Brewer's Famous Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
199 words

...Xenophon ? 428 ?354 Greek historian Thalatta, thalatta! [The sea, the sea!] Anabasis , IV.vii.24. Thalatta is Attic Greek, otherwise it would be thalassa . Xenophon tells how Greek mercenaries retreated to the Black Sea following their defeat in battle (401 bc ). When they reached it, the soldiers gave this cry. Hence, The Sea, The Sea , title of a novel (1978) by Iris Murdoch. Compare the poem ‘The Sea’ (1851) by Barry Cornwall (B.W. Procter) (1787–1874), which begins: ‘The Sea! the Sea! the open Sea! / The blue, the fresh, the ever free!’ The...

Xe'nophon

Xe'nophon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
516 words

...and the elder, Gryllus, was killed. Xenophon wrote on numerous subjects suggested by his varied experience (see entries for individual titles), and all known works survive. Socrates' personality made a profound impression on him and he wrote three books of recollections, Memorabilia , Apology , and Symposium . He may have misunderstood Socrates as profoundly as he admired him. (It is related that Socrates first met Xenophon, then a boy, in the street, and stopping him asked where various articles could be got. Xenophon told him. Socrates then asked, ‘Where...

Xenophon Ephesius

Xenophon Ephesius   Quick reference

Ewen Lyall Bowie

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
272 words

... Ephesius (‘the Ephesian’), Greek novelist, author of The Ephesian story of Anthia and Habrocomes ( Ta kata Anthian kai Habrakomēn Ephesiaka ). Mention (2. 13. 3) of an eirenarch (police magistrate), an office not attested before Trajan , together with the early place in the genre's development suggested by Xenophon's unambitious treatment of his story, indicates a date between ad 100 and 150 : so far no papyri have been published. The Suda calls him a historian and alleges other works, specifying only one, On the city of Ephesus , and gives...

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