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Inchon, landing at

Inchon, landing at (1950)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...had suffered an hour of doubt following an early misreport of failure, informed Washington that ‘the whole operation is proceeding on schedule’. By 20 September, 50,000 troops were ashore fighting for Seoul and meanwhile, preceded by an intense air and land bombardment, the UN and South Korean forces at Pusan shattered the NKPA and began to drive northwards. On 26 September, a divisional column joined elements of X Corps close to Seoul. By then, NKPA remnants were joining guerrilla bands in the south or filtering northwards across the 38th Parallel, incapable...

Rezonville/Gravelotte, battles of

Rezonville/Gravelotte, battles of (1870)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Rezonville. Le Boeuf's III Corps was at Verneville and the Guard at Gravelotte, while Ladmirault's IV Corps marched up from Metz. Bazaine's sloth confused Moltke ‘the Elder’, the German COS. The right wing of Second Army—Rheinbaben's cavalry at Puxieux, Voigts-Rhetz's X Corps at Thiaucourt, and Alvensleben's III Corps, marching up from Gorze—had no idea that it faced the main French force. Rheinbaben shelled Forton out of Mars la Tour at about 09.00, but when Alvensleben arrived he realized what he was dealing with. Recognizing that only...

Philippines, Liberation of the

Philippines, Liberation of the (1944–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...invasion, and on 3 October they acknowledged that an attack on Luzon would follow. Shielded by Adm. William F. Halsey 's Third Fleet and Vice Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid 's Seventh, Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger 's Sixth Army (X and XXIV Corps) of MacArthur's Southwest Pacific Area command streamed ashore against light opposition on 20 October . MacArthur and his aides waded ashore, fulfilling his 1942 pledge, “I shall return.” Convinced that the naval Battle of Leyte Gulf (24– 25 October ) had seriously weakened the Americans, the local Japanese Army...

Religious Services, Byzantine

Religious Services, Byzantine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

.... Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984. Nikephoros II Phokas . Praecepta militaria . Translated with commentary in E. McGeer , Sowing the Dragon's Teeth: Byzantine Warfare in the Tenth Century . Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1995. Pertusi, A . “ Una acolouthia militare inedita del X secolo. ” Aevum 22 (1948): 145–168. Secondary Works Dennis, G. T . “Religious Services in the Byzantine Army.” In Eulogema: Studies in Honor of Robert Taft, SJ , pp. 107–117. Studia Anselmiana 110. Rome: Centro Studi S. Anselmo, 1993. Viellefond, J . “ Les pratiques religieuses...

space, military implications of

space, military implications of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...those designed for the early detection of ballistic missile launches and those that detect nuclear explosions. They tend to have focal-plane array telescopes with infra-red sensors to detect the heat exhaust of a missile, or atmospheric burst sensors which detect the visible light, x-ray, and electromagnetic pulse emissions of a nuclear explosion. The USA operates these systems on the DSP (Defense Support Program) satellites in geosynchronous orbit and the new Navstar navigation satellites, while the Russians have a constellation of nine satellites in a highly...

Korean War

Korean War (1950–1953)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Eighth Army in the main attack against the North Korean capital of P’yongyang without adequate combat support. As the supporting attack, he planned another powerful amphibious assault by X Corps to strike the east coast port of Wonsan on 20 October . Although the Eighth Army advanced rapidly toward P’yongyang against light resistance, the amphibious attack by X Corps was six days late landing in its objective area because mine sweepers had to clear an elaborate minefield. On 11 October , Wonsan fell to a South Korean corps, almost two weeks before the...

amphibious operations

amphibious operations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...optional procedure in the late 20th and early 21st century. During the Gulf War, an amphibious assault force composed of US naval and USMC elements was deployed off the coast of Kuwait. Its purpose was to pin the 6 Iraqi divisions deployed along the coast and prevent their redeployment into the main combat zone. The operation was considered a great success, as it had pinned down in excess of 40,000 Iraqi troops and thus enabled Coalition forces to manoeuvre around the Iraqi defences, and outflank the coastal defence forces. On 20 March 2003 , British Royal...

Missiles

Missiles   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...dispersed to cover an area about the size of a football field; a single hit was deadly. During World War II, the Germans developed radio‐controlled and wire‐guided versions of the Henschel Hs 298, and the supersonic wire‐guided X‐4, designed by Dr. Max Kramer in 1943 . Both missiles were intended to have proximity fuses, with the X‐4 testing an acoustic version. Their most important legacy was probably in proving the feasibility of wire guidance, which has been so widely used on antiarmor rocket weapons. The Cold War requirement to shoot down incoming...

Korean war

Korean war (1950–3)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,945 words
Illustration(s):
1

...He withdrew his line 150 miles (241 km) south below the Han, abandoning Seoul. Almond's X Corps in the north-east began a closely contested withdrawal to the coast. Many in the UN Command believed that they would be driven out of Korea altogether. The Korean war , 1950–1. The UN forces moved in trucks. The Chinese marched. When the latter again closed on the UN and ROK positions in January 1951 , they were suffering from exposure in temperatures often below 20 °C at night, lacking proper clothing and supplies. P'eng asked for a pause but Mao urged him...

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence   Reference library

Michael Colaresi and Jude C. Hays

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,289 words
Illustration(s):
3

...problem to the extent that we are unsure of the specification of x Dt . For a pure moving average process, what is observed ( x Dt ) is hypothesized to have a distinct dynamic effect from what is unobserved ( ε ‎ t ) in a given model (for additional examples, see Box and Jenkins 1984 ). Therefore, for autoregressive processes of order p , where p is the number of lagged dependent variables, the covariate effects are captured by multipliers, not single coefficients. A one unit change in x dt will have a total impact on Y i → j , t of . For example, an...

The Interaction of Theory and Data

The Interaction of Theory and Data   Reference library

James D. Morrow

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
5,746 words

...899–912. Waltz, K.N. 1979. Theory of International Politics . New York: Random House. Ward, M.D. , Siverson, R.M. , and Cao, X. 2007. Disputes, Democracies, and Dependencies: A Reexamination of the Kantian Peace. American Journal of Political Science (51) (3), 583–601. Weede, E. 1976. Overwhelming Preponderance as a Pacifying Condition among Contiguous Asian Dyads, 1950–1969. Journal of Conflict Resolution (20) (3), 395–411. 1 See Singer ( 1975 ) for a sharp-tongued and often humorous response to those who criticized his view of the value of...

International Organization and Environmental Governance

International Organization and Environmental Governance   Reference library

Joshua William Busby

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
17,083 words

..., accessed August 20, 2009. Grist.org . At www.grist.org/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Mongabay.com . At www.mongabay.com/ , accessed August 20, 2009. New Scientist. At www.newscientist.com/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Real Climate.org . At www.realclimate.org/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Science. At www.sciencemag.org/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Scientific American. At www.scientificamerican.com/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Switchboard, NRDC blog. At http:/switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Third World Network...

The Past and Future of the Scientific Study of International Processes

The Past and Future of the Scientific Study of International Processes   Reference library

Zeev Maoz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,472 words

...The Political System , 2nd edn. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Elman-Fendius, M. (ed.) 1997. Paths to Peace: Is Democracy the Answer? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Enders, W. , and Su, X. 2007. Rational Terrorists and Optimal Network Structure. Journal of Conflict Resolution (51) (1), 33–57. Farber, H.S. , and Gowa, J. 1995. Polities and Peace. International Security (20) (2), 123–45. Fearon, J.D. 1995. Rationalist Explanations of War. International Organization (49) (3), 379–414. Filson, D. , and Werner, S. 2002. A Bargaining Model of War and Peace:...

Identity in International Relations

Identity in International Relations   Reference library

Felix Berenskoetter

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,159 words

...step in constructivist IR theory” ( Cedermann and Daase 2003 ). What an Identity Perspective Has to Offer Perhaps the most basic way to approach the concept is to say that the identity of X is the answer to the question: “Who/what is X?” Yet answers may differ depending on who is asked. We might decide that the answer which matters most is the one given by X itself (if it has a voice). Leaving aside for a moment that one may still get multiple answers, IR scholars seem to agree that, in the most basic reading, having an identity means having a sense of...

International Cooperation Theory

International Cooperation Theory   Reference library

Xinyuan Dai and Duncan Snidal

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,931 words

...Press. Dai, X. (2002a) Information Systems in Treaty Regimes. World Politics 54 (4), 405–36. Dai, X. (2002b) Political Regimes and International Trade: The Democratic Difference Revisited. American Political Science Review 96 (1), 159–65. Dai, X. (2005) Why Comply? The Domestic Constituency Mechanism. International Organization 59 (2), 363–98. Dai, X. (2006a) Dyadic Myth and Monadic Advantage: Conceptualizing the Effect of Democratic Constraints on Trade. Journal of Theoretical Politics 18 (3), 267–96. Dai, X. (2006b) The...

Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking

Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking   Reference library

Nadejda K. Marinova

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,259 words

...Human Trafficking in South Asia. Forced Migration Review (25), 16. Zhang, S.X. (2007) Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: All Roads Lead to America . Westport: Praeger. Zhang, S.X. (2008) Chinese Human Smuggling Organizations: Families, Social Networks, and Cultural Imperatives . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Zhang, S.X. (2011) Woman Pullers: Pimping and Sex Trafficking in a Mexican Border City. Crime, Law and Social Change (56) (5), 509–28. Zhang, S.X. , Chin, K. , and Miller, J. (2007) Women's Participation in Chinese...

Systemic Theories of Conflict

Systemic Theories of Conflict   Reference library

Karen Rasler and William R. Thompson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,981 words

...is also expected to be associated with cross-cutting pressures. State A may be in a dispute over issue X with states B and C, but A and C’s agreement on issue Y makes it less likely that the X dispute will be allowed to escalate (for fear of losing the advantages derived from the Y agreement). On both counts, bipolarity, it is argued, is less attractive. With only two powers closely monitoring every move the other power makes, a dispute over issue X is likely to spill over into issue Y as well. Multipolarity is therefore preferred because conflict...

Progress in the Democratic Peace Research Agenda

Progress in the Democratic Peace Research Agenda   Reference library

Steve Chan

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,839 words

... 20 (4), 183–96. Enterline, A.J. (1998) Regime Change and Interstate Conflict, 1816–1992. Political Research Quarterly 51 (2), 385–409. Enterline, A.J. , and Greig, J.M. (2005) Beacons of Hope? The Impact of Imposed Democracy on Regional Peace, Democracy and Prosperity. Journal of Politics 67 (4), 1075–98. Eyerman, J. , and Hart, R.A., Jr . (1996) An Empirical Test of the Audience Cost Proposition. Journal of Conflict Resolution 40 (4), 597–616. Farber, H.S. , and Gowa, J. (1995) Polities and Peace. International Security 20 (2),...

What is Development?

What is Development?   Reference library

Gustavo Esteva

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,452 words

...huge increases in social inequality but because it has become dangerous, by compromising everybody’s future” (p. x). And he seems to anticipate the global crisis which became entirely evident in 2008 when he writes: “Unless we act in good time against both these articles of faith, it will be under the pressure of the catastrophes they have set off that we will have to rethink our way of life and the foundations of our economic science” (p. x). The world is today reacting “under the pressure of the catastrophes,” both natural and social. The crisis has been...

World Society, World-Polity Theory, and International Relations

World Society, World-Polity Theory, and International Relations   Reference library

John Boli, Selina Gallo-Cruz, and Matt Mathias

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,519 words

...Stanford University Press, pp. 169–97. Luhmann, N. (1997) Globalization or World Society: How to Conceive of Modern Society? International Review of Sociology (7) (1), 67–79. Luo, X. (2000) The Rise of the Social Development Model: Institutional Construction of International Technology Organizations, 1856–1993. International Studies Quarterly (44) (1), 147–75. Luo, X. (2006) The Spread of a “Human Resources” Culture: Institutional Individualism and the Rise of Personal Development Training. In G.S. Drori , J.W. Meyer , and H. Hwang (eds.) ...

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