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Central Africa: Regional Politics and Dynamics

Central Africa: Regional Politics and Dynamics   Reference library

Andreas Mehler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,533 words

...in the early 1990s ( Table 2 ). Table 2. Outcome of First Multiparty Elections in the 1990s Country Presidential Elections: Incumbent Win Incumbent Lose Parliamentary Elections: Dominant Party Win Opposition Win Cameroon X X CAR X X Chad X X Congo X X DRC No elections held No elections held Gabon X X Equatorial Guinea X X STP X X Source : Author’s own compilation. The first heroic struggle for multiparty politics was practically terminated in the second half of the 1990s. This points at the limited organizational capacity of civil society and opposition...

Ideas and Political Mobilization in Africa

Ideas and Political Mobilization in Africa   Reference library

Anne Heffernan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,512 words

...from the diaspora. Dashiki staged Aimé Césaire’s Return to My Native Land ( Cahier d’un Retour au Pays Natal ), and TECON and PET both staged William Wellington Mackey’s Requiem for Brother X in 1972 and 1973 ( Peterson, 2004 , pp. 175–176; Kruger, 2005 , pp. 135–136). Requiem for Brother X was written by Mackey in 1966 as an elegy to Malcolm X a year after his assassination in the United States; it offers a deep indictment of the “dirty white politics” of that country, as described in TECON’s program note ( Kruger, 2005 , p. 136). As with...

China’s Economic Impact on Africa

China’s Economic Impact on Africa   Reference library

David H. Shinn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,649 words

...Paper 18/20, January). Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. Wang, X. , Zhu, K. , Li, Y. , & Xu, J. (2017). Applicability and prospect of China’s development zone model in Africa. Chinese Geographical Science , 27 (6), 860–874. Wei, S. , & Power, M. (2017). Africa and the export of China’s clean energy revolution. Third World Quarterly , 38 (3), 678–697. Won, K. (2016). China’s bilateral investment treaties with African states in comparative context. Cornell International Law Journal , 49 (1), 141–177. Wu, Y. , & Bai, X. (2017)....

Aboriginal politics (historical)

Aboriginal politics (historical)   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,736 words

...Brisbane by Denis Walker (son of famous poet Kath Walker , later known as Oodgeroo Noonuccal ). The Black Power movement, like those that preceded it in the 1920s, drew inspiration in part from Afro‐American advocates influenced by the ideas of Marcus Garvey , such as Malcolm X and the US Black Panther Party. They adapted these ideas to develop a concept of ‘ Land Rights ’ that would, if implemented, enable Aboriginal people to develop their homelands into economically independent enclaves, thus enabling people to maintain their cultural integrity and...

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa   Reference library

Adrienne LeBas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,154 words
Illustration(s):
2

... 1990 to 2012 . Figure 1 maps ENEP (vote fragmentation) on the x -axis and ENLP (legislative fragmentation) on the y -axis for individual elections. Competitive two-party systems would generally have ENLP and ENEP values of around 2, with ENEP slightly higher than ENLP. For instance, in Ghana from 1996 to 2013 , ENEP has ranged between 2.13 to 2.64 and ENLP between 1.87 and 2.16. The red line in this graph represents a proportional system in which X percent of the vote translates into X percent of seats. Figure 1. Party system fragmentation and...

The Prospects and Challenges of Pan-Africanism

The Prospects and Challenges of Pan-Africanism   Reference library

Toyin Falola and Chukwuemeka Agbo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,577 words

...subject could be broken up into three categories. First, the early 20th century witnessed the competition for colonial possessions as a factor tending to promote or intensify conflict between the major European powers. During the interwar years ( 1918–1939 ) the second category of the colonial problem shifted to the problem of the social ends to be sought and the administrative methods to be used by the colonial powers in the territories they controlled. The third shift occurred by the mid- 20th century , focusing on the problem of the relationship between...

World Trade Organization

World Trade Organization   Reference library

Rorden Wilkinson

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,839 words

...principles. In the unlikely event that a decision is put to a vote, the WTO operates on the basis of one member, one vote. That said, the organization's Establishing Agreement specifies that members are not bound by any amendment that passes a vote it has opposed (under Article X)—though in such instances, the Ministerial Conference can decide whether to ask the member or members to leave the organization, or to allow their continued participation without adherence to the amendment in question. Decision-making in the WTO is nevertheless heavily influenced by...

Land Grabs: The Politics of the Land Rush Across Africa

Land Grabs: The Politics of the Land Rush Across Africa   Reference library

Pauline Peters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
14,263 words

...In R. Hall , I. Scoones , & D. Tsikata (Eds.), Africa’s land rush (pp. 46–64). Oxford, UK: James Currey. Notes 1. Rare earths are a set of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, with a wide range of uses in technology (lasers, camera lenses, computer memory modules, X-ray machines), and energy and industrial fields. 2. Compare:“On average, land is more abundant in Africa than in other continents, but most Africans have only very small plots and an increasing number are landless” ( Raikes, 2000 , p. 66). 3. There are 883 domestic deals that...

Piracy and Maritime Security in Africa

Piracy and Maritime Security in Africa   Reference library

Jatin Dua

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,217 words

...over the world’s oceans are broadly understood as having sounded the death knell for large-scale organized maritime piracy. By the early 20th century the pirate and maritime piracy were understood as relics of the past, and in 1924 legal scholar Edwin Dickinson asked in the pages of the Harvard Law Review , “Is the Crime of Piracy Obsolete?” The codification of a definition of maritime piracy in the early 20th century emerged in response to an immediate need for clarifying the definition of piracy and as part of a larger project of legal...

Sport and Politics in Africa

Sport and Politics in Africa   Reference library

Michelle Sikes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,835 words

...the external political realities of the culture within which it seeks to exist. Conclusion In summary, sport and politics are not mutually exclusive; they are in fact inseparable. The notion that sport can have no bearing on politics is belied by 20th-century African politics generally, and South African 20th-century politics particularly. Sport became part of the politics of liberation from colonial rule and of postcolonial African leaders’ attempts to forge new identities while solidifying their power. In some contexts, sport came to buttress...

Oil and the International Politics of the African State

Oil and the International Politics of the African State   Reference library

Cyril Obi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,582 words

...cost of doing business: Transnational corporations and violence in Nigeria. Security Dialogue , 30 (4), 473–484. Pegg, S. (2015). Introduction: On the 20 th anniversary of the death of Saro-Wiwa. Extractive Industries and Society , 2 (4), 607–844. Rudra, N. , & Jensen, N. M. (2011). Globalization and the politics of natural resources. Comparative Political Studies , 44 (6), 689–718. Sala-i-Martin, X. , & Subramanian, A. (2013). Addressing the natural resource curse: An illustration from Nigeria. Journal of African Economies , 22 (4), 570–615....

Governing Africa’s Seas in the Neoliberal Era

Governing Africa’s Seas in the Neoliberal Era   Reference library

Tarik Dahou and Brenda Chalfin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,904 words

... 2017 ). High-tech port operations, many initially adopted in the name of trade facilitation and then repurposed in the service of security ( Chalfin, 2010 ), also spawn new modes of criminality and illegality, as Lamarque ( 2018 ) notes for Mombasa in the case of cargo x-ray scanners. These technologies likewise enable—and privilege—new port-based bureaucratic orders, such as Kenya Radiation Protection Board, now working hand in hand with the Kenya Revenue Authority. Networked with next-generation logistics technologies such as the geo-referenced...

Globalization and Regionalism in Africa

Globalization and Regionalism in Africa   Reference library

Pádraig Carmody

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,436 words

...Bratton, M. , & Van de Walle, N. (1997). Democratic experiments in Africa: Regime transitions in comparative perspective . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Brautigam, D. (2015). Will Africa feed China? New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Brautigam, D. , & Tang, X. Y. (2011). African Shenzhen: China’s special economic zones in Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies , 49 (1), 27–54. Burrell, J. (2008). Problematic empowerment: West African Internet scams as strategic misrepresentation. Information Technologies and International...

China and Political Governance in Africa

China and Political Governance in Africa   Reference library

Ian Taylor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,972 words

... (1948). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights . UN threatens Sudan with sanctions on Darfur (2004, July 31). China Daily . Wan, M. (2001). Human rights in Chinese foreign relations: Defining and defending interests . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Wang, X. (2018, January 9). What does Zimbabwe’s leadership change mean to China? The Diplomat . Xi, J. (2014a, June 28). Carry forward the five principles of peaceful coexistence to build a better world through win–win cooperation . Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s...

Obama, Barack

Obama, Barack (b. 1961)   Reference library

Wilbur C. Rich

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,393 words

...enterprise with competing interests jockeying for attention. Presidents cannot safely ignore any of them. In this, President Obama, like his predecessors, has both a constituency and an audience with each group vying for his attention. How would President Obama react if X happens or if Y is said? Each group looks to clues from his biography. Obama's constituencies include American voters: white liberals, youth, labor leaders, minorities, etc. His audience includes the world communities and its watchers (i.e., American foreign-policy elites). Since...

African Agency in International Politics

African Agency in International Politics   Reference library

Jonathan Fisher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,710 words

..., 91 (1), 131–151. Frank, A. G. (1967). Capitalism and underdevelopment in Latin America: Historical studies of Chile and Brazil . New York, NY: Monthly Review Press. Furtado, C. (1964). Development and underdevelopment . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Furtado, X. , & Smith, J. W. (2009). Ethiopia: Retaining sovereignty in aid relations. In L. Whitfield (Ed.), The politics of aid: African strategies for dealing with donors . Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Gadzala, A. (2015). Ethiopia: Towards a foreign funded “revolutionary...

Responses to Economic Crisis in Africa

Responses to Economic Crisis in Africa   Reference library

Peter M. Lewis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,152 words

...rule: The primacy of institutions over geography and integration in economic development. Journal of Economic Growth , 9 (2), 131–165. Sachs, J. D. (Ed.). (1989). Developing country debt and the world economy . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Sala-i-Martin, X. , & Pinkovskiy, M. (2010). African poverty is falling … much faster than you think! (Working Paper No. 15775). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Sandbrook, R. (1993). The politics of Africa’s economic recovery . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press....

Aid, Political Conditionality, and Other International Efforts to Support Democracy in Africa

Aid, Political Conditionality, and Other International Efforts to Support Democracy in Africa   Reference library

Christine Hackenesch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,230 words

... Samson, R. (2016). China’s growing presence in Africa wins largely positive popular reviews . Afrobarometer Dispatch , 122 . Levitsky, S. , & Way, L. A. (2010). Competitive authoritarianism: Hybrid regimes after the Cold War . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Li, X. (2017). Does conditionality still work? China’s development assistance and democracy in Africa . Chinese Political Science Review, 2 (2), 201–220. Lundsgaarde, E. (2017). The European Fund for Sustainable Development: Changing the game? DIE Discussion Paper, 29/2017. Bonn,...

abortion rights

abortion rights   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,117 words

...called “partial-birth” abortion. Doctors have used this procedure, which they call D&X (dilation and extraction), to terminate late-term pregnancies. Writing for the Court's 5-to-4 majority, Justice Stephen Breyer declared the Nebraska law unconstitutional because it did not provide an exception for cases when the life or health of the mother is in danger. Further, he held the law was written so broadly that it could be used to prohibit abortion procedures other than D&X, which would violate the Court's Roe decision. Writing in dissent, Justice Anthony...

Secure Communities

Secure Communities   Reference library

Ronald L. Mize

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,311 words

...315 66 1,158 ME 5/30/2012 5,484 22 40 62 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 MI 10/27/2009 740,106 2,372 8,371 10,743 287 281 426 66 340 65 1,465 MN 2/7/2012 116,496 1,650 3,171 4,821 128 109 144 16 89 24 510 MO 9/21/2010 413,442 977 4,577 5,554 113 114 198 74 185 50 734 MS 7/20/2010 160,569 325 1,937 2,262 47 103 193 18 127 20 508 MT 7/27/2010 28,135 49 110 159 2 4 3 0 2 0 11 NC 11/12/2008 695,441 4,519 25,883 30,402 1,315 1,166 2,020 281 1,413 512 6,707 ND 4/10/2012 12,247 84 200 284 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 NE 8/17/2010 76,362 540 3,328 3,868 134 141 182 10 43 18 528 NH 5/8/2012 12,522...

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