You are looking at 1-10 of 10 entries  for:

  • History of Science x
  • Medicine and health x
clear all

View:

Surgery

Surgery   Reference library

Thomas P. Gariepy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of Surgeons held in 1910 in Chicago, the American College of Surgeons was organized in 1913 . As surgery became more technically proficient, it depended more on ancillary services, such as professional nursing and anesthesiologists, and technology, such as laboratories and X-rays. To meet these complicated demands, surgery consequently moved out of the patient’s home and into the hospital. Surgical Specialties Emerge. Anesthesia and asepsis spurred the growth of surgical practice and its organizational growth, but blood loss remained a barrier to...

Astronomy and Astrophysics

Astronomy and Astrophysics   Reference library

Trudy E. Bell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to astronomy. The Hubble Space Telescope (launched 1990 ), with its 2.4-meter mirror, observes primarily at visible wavelengths ( Smith, 1989 ). The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (launched 1991 ) observed gamma rays and hard X-rays (the most energetic X-rays). The Chandra X-ray Observatory (launched 1999 ) observes soft X-rays. The Spitzer Space Telescope (launched 2003 ) observes objects across infrared wavelengths. Meanwhile, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE, launched 1989 ) discovered that the temperature of the cosmic microwave background...

Space Science

Space Science   Reference library

Michael H. Gorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the Chandra X-ray Telescope, named for the Indian-born astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. First proposed in 1976 , it represented one of the biggest and heaviest payloads ever carried by the Shuttle (45 feet long and 45,430 pounds with the inertial upper stage needed to boost it into high earth orbit). Before launching in July 1999 , Chandra experienced cutbacks and redesign. During the 1990s, program managers reduced the original twelve telescope mirrors to eight and the six scientific instruments to four. Still, it surpassed previous X-ray...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

Bernadette McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...developments moved more slowly. With the introduction of diphtheria antitoxin in the late 1890s, medical practitioners could successfully treat that dreaded disease in a hospital setting, if they diagnosed it properly. Moreover, new diagnostic tools in the laboratory as well as X-rays (introduced after 1896 ) transformed not only the routine practice of medical care but also the public perceptions about the importance of scientific and technical developments in medicine. The result was a new focus on the hospital as a scientific institution. As this...

Law and Science

Law and Science   Reference library

Tal Golan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...substances by their line spectra; differentiated between humans and other species by the shape and size of their red-blood corpuscles; reconstructed important characteristics of a corpse from partial clusters of bones; and photographed the insides of things with the mysterious X-rays ( Golan, 2004a ). The late nineteenth-century legal system provided important patronage to the fledgling American scientific community. In an era when scientific expertise provided only a limited means of livelihood, legal functions such as the production of evidence, expert...

Space Program

Space Program   Reference library

Michael H. Gorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Ultimately, President Eisenhower and Congress discontinued NACA, succeeding it on 1 October 1958 with NASA. But with the transfer of its headquarters and laboratories to NASA, NACA’s spaceflight infrastructure, talent base, and ongoing research (on advanced projects like the X-15 hypersonic aircraft) continued intact. Perhaps the most enduring NACA legacy proved to be the Space Task Group (STG), a brain trust initiated by NACA director Hugh Dryden prior to NASA’s inception. Led by Robert Gilruth, it guided early human spaceflight in the United States and...

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND

Diplomacy (Post-1945), Science and Technology AND   Reference library

John Krige

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...so-called third-generation nuclear weapons (succeeding the atomic and hydrogen bombs). These devices focused the explosive power of a bomb, increasing the energy it delivered on a target a thousandfold. They could also be used to produce intense beams of directed energy, as in an X-ray laser “pumped” by a concentrated nuclear explosion. Complementing these innovations, President Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) planned for the deployment of a variety of high-power directed beam weapons to destroy incoming enemy ballistic missiles. Although...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Eric Howard Christianson, John Harley Warner, Harry M. Marks, Harry M. Marks, and Naomi Rogers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Social as well as technical innovations engendered the modern hospital. Religious groups—Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish—founded hospitals, as did small-town doctors who saw the advantages in hospitalizing patients. Hospitals provided surgeons not only with operating rooms, X-ray equipment, and diagnostic laboratories, but also with nurses to care for patients. By 1939 , more than half of the nation’s babies were being delivered in hospitals, as obstetricians (and their patients) followed surgeons into the hospital. As with sanitary reforms, use of the...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...on to develop the first practical electric railroad. Soon after Edison and Thomson–Houston interests merged to form General Electric, the company formed a research and development lab, which conducted fundamental research leading to basic advances in ductile tungsten filaments, X-rays, and radios. By the 1920s, when the macroeconomic effects of electrification were just being felt, electric power formed a technological system in which large utilities used coal-driven steam turbines or water power to generate electricity that was transmitted hundreds of miles...

War and Medicine

War and Medicine   Reference library

Dale Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...especially sexually transmitted diseases; plastic and reconstructive surgery; and pulmonary diseases, especially pneumonia and tuberculosis. The courses trained personnel to use new diagnostic tools and innovations in medical science, including the scientific laboratory and the X-ray. Although scholars have not studied the impact of these courses in detail, they were outlined in the official history of the work of the Army Medical Department during the war. Since medical education reform had started but not extended very far in 1917 , these courses may have...

View: