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chiasmus

chiasmus n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of John F. Kennedy , 1917–63 , 35th US president, 20 January 1961 ). Two of the best psychological examples are I’d rather have a full bottle in front of me than a full-frontal lobotomy and the following mordant comment on achieving something that makes others jealous: It’s champagne for my real friends and real pain for my sham friends . chiasmi pl. chiasmic adj. [From Greek chiasmos a crisscross arrangement, from chiasma a cross, named after the shape of the upper-case letter chi (X) + ismos indicating a state or...

intellectual disability

intellectual disability n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Organization, an IQ between 50 and 70 is approximately indicative of mild mental intellectual disability, 35–50 moderate intellectual disability, 20–35 severe intellectual disability, and below 20 profound intellectual disability. Also called intellectual developmental disorder . See cerebral gigantism , cerebral palsy , cretinism , cri du chat , Down’s syndrome , foetal alcohol syndrome , fragile X syndrome , Hurler’s syndrome , idiot savant , Klinefelter’s syndrome , Lesch–Nyhan syndrome , macrocephaly , microcephaly , mild mental...

common ratio effect

common ratio effect n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...× u (16) < u (10), which means that u (16) < 1.25 × u (10). But the preference of C over D implies that .20 × u (16) > .25 × u (10), which simplifies to u (16) > 1.25 × u (10), a contradiction. In general, if x > y > z are sums of money, and p and q are non-zero probabilities, then the common ratio effect occurs if a decision maker prefers the prospect py + (1 −  p ) y to px + (1 −  p ) z , and also prefers p (1 −  q ) x + (1 −  p )(1 −  q ) z + qz to p (1 −  q ) y + (1 −  p )(1 −  q ) y + qz . Compare Allais paradox , ...

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