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percentage change in maximal aerobic power

percentage change in maximal aerobic power  

A measure of the effect of ageing on aerobic fitness. The percentage change in maximal aerobic power: (VO2max) = VO2max at age x years—VO2max at age x + y years/VO2max at x years × 100. Maximal ...
olecranon fracture

olecranon fracture  

Fracture of the ulna at the point of the elbow joint. It is usually caused by a fall onto the arm or elbow. Olecranon fractures occur most commonly in contact sports and in sports, such as ...
clavicle fracture

clavicle fracture  

A fracture that commonly occurs when a person falls onto an outstretched arm, for example, when falling off a horse. It may also occur from a direct impact with another athlete or obstacle. Fractures ...
Kerley B lines

Kerley B lines   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
44 words

...B lines fine horizontal lines seen in the angle between the diaphragm and the chest wall on a chest X-ray. It is a sign of pulmonary oedema and therefore heart failure. [ P. J. Kerley ( 20th century ), British radiologist...

lung cancer

lung cancer   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
94 words

...particularly in Britain, and is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and exposure to industrial air pollutants (including asbestos). There are often no symptoms in the early stages of the disease, when diagnosis is made on X-ray examination. Treatment includes surgical removal of the affected lobe or lung (less than 20% of cases are suitable for surgery), radiotherapy, and...

Becker muscular dystrophy

Becker muscular dystrophy   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
77 words

...muscular dystrophy a sex-linked (X-linked) disorder in which affected males develop an increase in muscle size followed by weakness and wasting. It usually starts between the ages of 5 and 15, and 25 years after onset most patients are wheelchair-bound. Although most men become severely disabled, life expectancy is close to normal. The disorder is similar to Duchenne muscular dystrophy but less severe. [ P. E. Becker ( 20th century ), German geneticist...

ultrasound

ultrasound n.   Quick reference

Concise Medical Dictionary (10 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
193 words

... ( ultrasonic waves ) n. sound waves of high frequency (above 20 kHz), inaudible to the human ear. Ultrasound in the range 2–20 MHz can be used to produce images of the interior of the human body as the waves reflect off structures back to the probe ( see ultrasonography ). Ultrasound waves have the advantage over X-rays of not being ionizing and are therefore much less harmful, particularly at energy levels used for diagnosis. The vibratory effect of ultrasound can also be used to break up stones in the body ( see lithotripsy ) and in the...

p20

p20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...p20 1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3 . 2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat in the 5′ UTR that is a feature of fragile X syndrome . 3. p20-CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β ‎ ( CEBP β ‎), a truncated C/EBP β ‎...

myelin proteolipid protein

myelin proteolipid protein   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...myelin proteolipid protein ( lipophilin ) The primary constituent of myelin in the central nervous system. There are two isofoms, PLP and DM20, produced by alternative splicing; both are very hydrophobic integral membrane proteins, tetraspanins, with two extracellar loops and one intracellular loop. Mutation in the PLP gene leads to X-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia type 2 (SPG2) and to the X-linked dysmyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease...

Lod score

Lod score   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Lod score A statistically derived parameter (logarithm of the odds score) that indicates the probability (logarithm to base 10) that there is linkage between traits or markers. For non-X-linked genetic disorders a Lod score of +3 (1000:1) is usually taken to indicate linkage and a Lod score less than −2.0 is evidence to exclude...

spastic paraplegias

spastic paraplegias   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...by lower-extremity spasticity and weakness; inheritance is most commonly autosomal dominant, but X-linked and autosomal recessive forms also occur. The affected protein is shown in parentheses: Autosomal dominant forms include SPG3A (Strumpell’s disease) ( atlastin ), SPG4 ( spastin ), SPG6 ( NIPA1 ), SPG8 ( strumpellin ), SPG10 (kinesin-5A), SPG13 (HSP60), SPG31 ( receptor expression-enhancing protein-1 ), and SPG33 ( protrudin ). X-linked forms include SPG2 ( myelin proteolipid protein ) allelic to Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease . ...

p21-activated kinases

p21-activated kinases   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...response. PAK3 (oligophrenin 3, 559 aa) has three tissue-restricted isoforms, and mutations in PAK3 are associated with X-linked mental...

amelogenesis imperfecta

amelogenesis imperfecta   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...The X-linked form of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta is caused by mutation in the gene encoding amelogenin . Types 1B and 1C are caused by mutation in the enamelin gene. Type 3 (hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta) is caused by mutation in the FAM83H gene, the product of which (1179 aa) is expressed in ameloblasts and odontoblasts. Type 4 is caused by mutation in the distal-less homoeobox 3 ( DLX3 ) gene. The pigmented hypomaturation type of amelogenesis imperfecta can be caused by mutation in the matrix metalloproteinase-20 gene or in...

adenosine deaminase

adenosine deaminase   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Biomedicine (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...in ADA causes 20–30% of cases of severe combined immunodeficiency ( SCID ) and was the first candidate disease for gene replacement therapy. A deficiency of ADA causes an increase of dATP, which inhibits S -adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase; S -adenosylhomocysteine accumulates and is lymphotoxic. See also ADAR . Adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2 (ADCP2, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, EC 3.4.14.5, conversion factor, 766 aa) forms a complex with ADA and generates the tissue-specific forms. It is a serine exopeptidase that cleaves X-proline dipeptides...

Physical Activity and Sleep

Physical Activity and Sleep   Reference library

Sayaka Aritake-Okada and Sunao Uchida

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
6,110 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in an inpatient cohort . Journal of Psychiatric Research , 61 , 25–32. Shioda, K. , Goto, K. , & Uchida, S. (2012). The effect of acute high-intensity exercise on following night sleep. Japanese Journal of Clinical Sports Medicine , (20), 306–315. Song, Y. Y. , Hu, R. J. , Diao, Y. S. , Chen, L. , & Jiang, X. L. (2018). Effects of exercise training on restless legs syndrome, depression, sleep quality, and fatigue among hemodialysis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis . Journal of Pain Symptom Management , 55 (4), 1184–1195. Takahashi...

The Roles of Psychological Stress, Physical Activity, and Dietary Modifications on Cardiovascular Health Implications

The Roles of Psychological Stress, Physical Activity, and Dietary Modifications on Cardiovascular Health Implications   Reference library

Chun-Jung Huang, Matthew J. McAllister, and Aaron L. Slusher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
12,608 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., 82 (1), 25–32. Yan, M. H. , Wang, X. , & Zhu, X. (2013). Mitochondrial defects and oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. Free Radical Biology and Medicine , 62 , 90–101. Zheng, B. , Liao, Z. , Locascio, J. J. , Lesniak, K. A. , Roderick, S. S. , Watt, M. L. , … Scherzer, C. R. (2010). PGC-1alpha, a potential therapeutic target for early intervention in Parkinson’s disease. Science Translational Medicine , 2 (52), 52ra73. Zhou, G. , Myers, R. , Li, Y. , Chen, Y. , Shen, X. , Fenyk-Melody, J. , … Fujii, N. ...

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Depression

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Depression   Reference library

Felipe B. Schuch and Brendon Stubbs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...of burden across the world and is ranked in the top ten causes of years lived with disability ( Murray et al., 2012 ; Vos et al., 2012 ). The global prevalence of MDD is between 6% and 20% ( Andrade et al., 2003 ). In addition, the prevalence of subthreshold depressive symptoms, which do not quite meet the criteria for a formal diagnosis of MDD, is approximately 15%–20% ( Ayuso-Mateos et al., 2001 ). However, both MDD and depressive symptoms are associated with considerable burden to the individual ( Charlson, Diminic, Lund, Degenhardt, & Whiteford, ...

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology   Reference library

Sicong Liu and Gershon Tenenbaum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...papers . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Carron, A. V. , Bray, S. R. , & Eys, M. A. (2002). Team cohesion and team success in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20 (2), 119–126. Chen, M. J. , Fan, X. , & Moe, S. T. (2002). Criterion-related validity of the Borg ratings of perceived exertion scale in healthy individuals: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20 (11), 873–899. Cohen, J. , Cohen, P. , West, S. G. , & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah...

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Cognition   Reference library

Jennifer L. Etnier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...that these individuals have a heightened risk of Alzheimer’s disease, this is an important avenue for future research. Additionally, given evidence that the relationship between PA and cognitive performance is moderated by this genotype, future study may uncover additional gene x behavior interactions that may help us to further understand the variability in findings from RCTs. Placebo Effect In considering the evidence relative to the potential benefits of chronic PA on cognitive performance, it is important to recognize that criticisms have been raised regarding...

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Anxiety

Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Anxiety   Reference library

Steven J. Petruzzello

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...before any firm conclusions can be drawn and certainly before any recommendations about minimal exercise intensity levels can be made. As for a minimum duration of exercise, Petruzzello et al. ( 1991 ) noted that exercise durations of less than 20 minutes were as effective as durations of greater than 20 minutes for reducing anxiety. The PAGAC report ( 2008 ) essentially concluded the same thing—minimal and optimal exercise durations or intensities for anxiety reduction remain unknown. Thus research at this point shows that the anxiety-reducing effect...

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