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Illogic

Illogic   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., at 2. H. ✳Times more than . A problem similar to but far less egregious than the illogic of ✳times less than comes up when we say that X is ✳two times more than Y. The common understanding is that if Y is 1, then X is 2. But strictly speaking, one time more than Y could also be 2, because more implies that the result of 1-times-X is added to X to arrive at Y. The more precise and unambiguous wording is “X is two times as much as Y.” I. Miscellaneous Other Examples. For various other brands of poor thinking, see adjectives (b) , all ( d ) , ...

Possessives

Possessives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... A. Singular Possessives. To form a singular possessive, add -'s to most singular nouns—even those ending in -s , -ss , and -x (hence Jones's , Nichols's , witness's , Vitex's ). E.g.: “Noting Congress's move to regulate maternity hospitalization, managed-care advocates predict that politicians would legislate health care.” Kent Jenkins et al., “Health Care Politics,” U.S. News & World Rep . , 1 Dec. 1997 , at 24. The traditional approach of the AP Stylebook (see, e.g., the 1996 6th ed.) was to use nothing more than an apostrophe...

Plurals

Plurals   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,782 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fireplace valued at $4,000.” “Building Permits,” Providence J.-Bull . , 9 Jan. 1997 , at C4. F. Proper Names. Although few books on grammar mention the point, proper names often cause problems as plurals. The rule is simple: most take a simple -s , while those ending in -s , -x , or -z , or in a sibilant -ch or -sh , take -es . Thus: Singular Form Plural Form Adam Adams Adams Adamses Bush Bushes Church Churches Cox Coxes Flowers Flowerses Jones Joneses Levy Levys Lipschutz Lipschutzes Mary Marys Rabiej Rabiejs (the -j- is silent) Shapiro Shapiros...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sentence, the closing parenthesis follows the end punctuation; if not, the end punctuation is placed outside, as in the previous sentence here. More specifically, parentheses are used in four ways. First, they indicate interpolations and remarks by the writer of the text <Mrs. X (as I shall call her) now spoke> . Second, they specify, in one's own running text, an authority, definition, explanation, reference, or translation <according to Fowler ( FMEU1 at 64), it is correct to . . . > . Third, in reporting a speech, they sometimes indicate interruptions...

Holmes, Sherlock

Holmes, Sherlock ([Lit.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
202 words

...acute powers of observation and deduction; a person who solves a mystery At once I took up my pipe, violin and deerstalker like a veritable Sherlock. I have always been an X-marks-the-spot man. ‘Let us go and revisit it,’ I said briskly. Lawrence Durrell Clea 1960 This is the ‘inorganic mineral’ theory of the Glasgow chemist Graham Cairns-Smith, first proposed 20 years ago and since developed and elaborated in three books, the latest of which, Seven Clues to the Origin of Life , treats the origin of life as a mystery needing a Sherlock Holmes...

African-American rhetoric

African-American rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,882 words

...Islam (Lincoln coined the term Black Muslims ); contains a brief history of black nationalism in the United States. Malcolm X . Malcolm X Speaks , edited by George Breitman . New York, 1989. Originally published in 1965, this is the best-known and most widely available collection of key speeches and statements from Malcolm X's last year; contains “The Ballot or the Bullet.” Malcolm X , and Alex Haley . The Autobiography of Malcolm X . New York, 1965. Moses, Wilson Jeremiah . The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850–1925 . Hamden, Conn., 1978. Out of...

Ambiguity

Ambiguity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,995 words

...however slight, which gives room for alternative reactions to the same piece of language” constitutes ambiguity; even when one does not perceive his or her own symbol use as multivocal, argued Empson, it legitimately may be labeled “ambiguous” if anyone else “might be puzzled” (p. x). Empson used this assumption not to deny the possibility of shared meaning, but to justify the rich potential of symbolic ambiguity for literary contexts. Finally and least conventionally, deconstructionists, such as Jacques Derrida ( Writing and Difference , 1978 ), argued that...

Style

Style   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,178 words

...” Renaissance-Poetik. Renaissance Poetics , edited by Heinrich F. Plett , pp. 133–146. Berlin, 1994. Müller, Wolfgang G. “ Die traditionelle Rhetorik und einige Stilkonzepte des 20. Jahrhunderts. ” Die Aktualität der Rhetorik , edited by Heinrich F. Plett , pp. 160–175. Munich, 1996. Müller, Wolfgang G. “ Stil. ” Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie . X, pp. 150–159. Basel 1999. Murphy, James J. Rhetoric in the Middle Ages . Berkeley, 1974. Murphy, James J. Renaissance Rhetoric. A Short-Title Catalogue of Works on Rhetorical Theory from...

Sawbuck

Sawbuck   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...In US usage a $10 bill. A sawbuck is a sawing-horse used for cutting up firewood, the legs at each end of which are crossed and bolted in an X-shape. Before note issue became a monopoly of the Federal Reserve Bank, many had an X instead of a 10 to show the denomination. A double sawbuck is a $20...

Querno

Querno   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Camillo Querno of Apulia, hearing that Pope Leo X ( b.1475 , 1513–22 ) was a great patron of poets, went to Rome with a harp in his hand and sang a poem called Alexias , which had 20,000 verses. He was introduced to the pope as a buffoon, but was made poet laureate and became a constant frequenter of the pope’s table. Rome in her Capitol saw Querno sit, Thron’d on seven hills the Antichrist of...

T

T   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The 20th letter of the alphabet, representing Semitic and Greek tau , which meant ‘a sign’ or ‘a mark’. Roman T is a modification of the earlier form, X. See also tau . As a medieval numeral T represents 160, and T̄ 160,000. Dot the ‘i’s and cross the ‘t’s, To See under dot . Marked with a T, To be See under mark 1 . To a T Exactly. The allusion is to the use of a T-square for the accurate drawing of right-angles, parallel lines and so...

Shilling

Shilling   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Germanic skel -, ‘to resound’, ‘to ring’, or skil -, ‘to divide’) The shilling coin dates from 1504 , was originally made with a deeply indented cross, and could be easily divided into halves and quarters. Before decimalization, a shilling (1s) was worth 12 pence (12 x 1d), and there were 20 shillings in a pound (£1). After decimalization, the shilling coin was replaced by the 5p piece ( see decimal currency ). Shilling shocker See penny-dreadful . Cooing and billing, like Philip and Mary on a shilling See under cooing . Cut off with a shilling See...

July

July   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...gift’), corresponding to the period 20 June to 19 July. Until the 18th century ‘July’ was accented on the first syllable. Even as late as 1798 William Wordsworth wrote: In March, December, and in July, ’Tis all the same with Harry Gill; The neighbours tell, and tell you truly, His teeth they chatter, chatter still. July Monarchy, The That of Louis Philippe, also called the Orleanist monarchy. See also july revolution . July Revolution, The The French revolution of 1830 (17–29 July) that overthrew Charles X and gave the throne to Louis Philippe,...

Sortes

Sortes   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...king, suggested this kind of augury , and the king hit on IV, 615–20, the gist of which is that ‘evil wars would break out, and the king lose his life’. Falkland, to laugh the matter off, said he would show his Majesty how ridiculously the ‘lot’ would foretell the next fate, and he hit on XI, 152–81, the lament of Evander for the untimely death of his son Pallas . Soon after, King Charles mourned over his noble friend who was slain at Newbury ( 1643 ). In Rabelais ( Pantagruel , III, x ( 1532 )), panurge consults the Sortes Virgilianae et Homericae on...

Modernism

Modernism   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...was also a movement in the roman catholic church that sought to interpret the ancient teachings of the church with due regard to the current teachings of science, modern philosophy and history. It arose in the late 19th century and was formally condemned by Pope Pius X in 1907 in the encyclical Pascendi , which stigmatized it as the ‘synthesis of all heresies’. The term has been additionally applied to liberal and radical critics of traditional theology in other churches. The Modern Churchmen’s Union was founded in 1898 and was strongly critical...

Elephant

Elephant   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...that he could walk only with a stick. His disorder was long thought to be neurofibromatosis, but research in the late 20th century concluded that he had suffered from the extremely rare disease known as the Proteus syndrome. He died of accidental suffocation in hospital at the age of 27. Elephant paper Before metrication, a large-sized drawing paper measuring 23 x 28in (584 x 711mm). Double Elephant was a size of printing paper 27 x 40in (686 x 1016mm). The name is probably from an ancient watermark. Elephant trunk See teddy boy . Order of the Elephant, The...

Scouse

Scouse   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of Irish background, replace / θ, ð ‎/ with /t, d/, as in ‘dese tree’ for these three . Month may be pronounced ‘muntth’ . (7) In syllable-initial and syllable-final positions, a fricative can follow a stop, as in ‘k/x/ing’ for king (where /x/ represents the fricative in ScoE loch ), ‘me d/z/ad’ for my dad , ‘back/x/’ for back , and ‘bad/z/’ for bad . (8) Scouse is often described as having a flat intonation, in effect a rise with a level tail where RP has a fall: in the statement I don’t like it , it goes up on like then runs level, whereas...

Sense

Sense   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...(such as the sense of sight ) through analogous faculties of mind or spirit ( a sense of humour ), intelligence ( Show some sense! ), and what is logical and proper (the opposite of nonsense ) to meaning ( the sense of a text ) and the idea that many words have submeanings ( X used in the sense of Y ; the various senses of the word ‘mark’ ). Although people agree that words may have different ‘senses’, there is no agreed means of establishing just how many senses many polysemous (many-sensed) words have ( see polysemy ). The boundaries between senses...

poststructuralism

poststructuralism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,415 words

... x, y, z . Now, there is no simple linear correlation between terms on each of the different levels. In other words, we do not say, for instance, that x is realized by p , which is, in turn, realized by a . Instead, there is a metaredundancy relation such that x, y, z redounds not with p, q, r but with the redundancy of p, q, r with a, b, c . Thus, x, y, z REDOUNDS WITH ( p, q, r REDOUNDS WITH a, b, c ). The relations between levels are hierarchical and symmetrical at all levels. There is no causality here: we do not say that x is caused...

Crown

Crown   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the reign of Charles II . Silver crowns were struck from 1551 . The name derives from the French gold coin ( couronne ) first issued by Philip of Valois in 1339 , which bore a crown on the obverse. In the paper trade, crown was a standard size of printing paper measuring 15 x 20in (before metrication). It was so called from an ancient watermark. Crown Jewels, The The crown and regalia worn by the monarch at coronations and certain other important occasions, such as the State Opening of Parliament. The priceless gems include the First and Second Stars of...

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