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Scheurebe

Scheurebe   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...is the one early-20th-century german cross that deserves attention from any connoisseur, and the only one named after the prolific vine breeder Georg Scheu, the original director of the viticultural institute at Alzey in Rheinhessen. Sometimes called simply Scheu , it was developed with specific, sandy, Rheinhessen soils around Dienheim in mind but has achieved its greatest popularity in the pfalz . dna profiling in 2012 showed that it is a cross of Riesling and Bukettrebe, a white-berried Silvaner x Schiava Grossa cross. It is much more than a...

woodchuck

woodchuck   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...animal and can be hunted almost any time of the day, if the weather is good. They are sun worshippers and prefer a vegetarian diet. It is said a woodchuck can eat in one day as much clover as a full-grown sheep. ‘The flesh of the young “chuck”,’ according to an article by Francis X. Lueth in the spring 1943 issue of Illinois Conservation , ‘is delicious if the little red kernels or glands which are found in each foreleg, high up near the body, are cut out.’ … Young ones may be cooked in the same manner as cotton-tail rabbits … The muscles of the woodchuck...

flip-top

flip-top   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (accessed January 27, 2011). Nicolai Fritzner . http://books.google.com/books?id=0hEzAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA2043&lpg=PA2043&dq=Nicolai+Fritzner&source=bl&ots=tg-TI8rpmI&sig=4knasu-VtJmg6Q-17HGP8iAjfaE&hl=en&ei=BpxBTZj5HMT68Ab2v6GzAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&sqi=2&ved=0CDUQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=Nicolai%20Fritzner&f=false/ (accessed January 27, 2011). Horst...

Mackeson

Mackeson   Reference library

Terry Foster

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The latter company along with the Mackeson brewery became part of the Whitbread empire in 1925. Whitbread soon disposed of the draught version of Mackeson, but in bottled form it became a national brand during the 1960s. A stronger version, at 4.9% ABV, known as “Mackeson Triple X,” was produced for the American market; it was brewed by the Hudepohl-Schoenling Brewing Company in Cincinnati, Ohio, for a time. A similar version is produced by Carib Brewing in Trinidad. Whitbread itself was taken over by Interbrew, now Anheuser-Busch InBev, and Mackeson Stout is...

tripel

tripel   Reference library

Derek Walsh

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...“tripel” refers to the amount of malt with fermentable sugars and the original gravity of the wort prior to fermentation. One theory of the origin is that it follows a medieval tradition where crosses were used to mark casks: a single X for the weakest beer, XX for a medium-strength beer, and XXX for the strongest beer. Three X’s would then be synonymous with the name “tripel.” In the days when most people were illiterate, this assured drinkers that they were getting the beer they asked for. Tripel beers are traditionally brewed using soft water and...

Kneifl (barley)

Kneifl (barley)   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...offspring of Kneifl and Hanna was the Czech Valtice (or Valtický), developed in the decade before World War II. After the war, Valtice, in turn, gave rise to many new cultivars, including the sturdy, short-stem Czech Diamant, whose breeding program started in 1956. Diamant was an x-ray-induced positive mutant. It was released to the fields in 1965, where its stalks grew about 15 cm (6 inch) shorter than those of standard varieties. In addition, it had excellent tillering characteristics and good malting qualities. As a Kneifl descendant, Diamant, too, quickly...

Sylvia’s

Sylvia’s   Reference library

Judith Weinraub

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...The average restaurant doesn’t have a long life span—maybe three to five years if they make it past the first one. Sylvia’s, at 328 Malcolm X Boulevard near 127th Street in Harlem, has been in business since 1962 . The restaurant was founded by Sylvia Woods, well known today as the Queen of Soul Food. Woods was an ambitious teenager determined to leave the poverty of the South Carolina cotton fields of her youth behind her when she moved to New York to join her mother, who had already moved there for better work opportunities. At first she worked in a...

physiological ripeness

physiological ripeness   Reference library

Jancis Robinson, Julia Harding, and Richard Smart

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Julia Harding MW , & Dr Richard Smart Sadras, V. O. , and Moran, M. A. , ‘Elevated temperature decouples anthocyanins and sugars in berries of Shiraz and Cabernet Franc’, Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research , 18/2 (2012), 115–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0238.2012.00180.x. ...

Grana Padano

Grana Padano   Reference library

Luisa Pellegrino

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Supporting the Safety of the Raw Milk Cheese Italian Grana.” Scienza e Tecnica Lattiero-Casearia 52 (2001): 105–114. Tansman, G. F. , et al. Crystal Fingerprinting: Elucidating the Crystals of Cheddar, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Gouda, and Soft Washed-rind Cheeses Using Powder X-ray Diffractometry.” Dairy Science & Technology 95 (2015): 651–664. Luisa Pellegrino...

Parmigiano Reggiano

Parmigiano Reggiano   Reference library

David Gibbons

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,377 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Italy. Often referred to as “the king of cheeses,” Parmigiano Reggiano is among its country’s greatest gastronomic products and a major export. Nearly 35 percent of the roughly 3.3 million wheels made each year are sold abroad. Of that export total, approximately 20 percent go to France, 20 percent to Germany, about 17 percent to the United States, and an equal amount to the United Kingdom. Wheels of Parmiggiano Reggiano aging in Giorgio Cravero’s caves in the town of Bra, Italy. Giorgio Cravero is the fifth generation of raffinatores (cheese agers) in his...

color

color   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,310 words

...has its own EBC color scale, whereby the conversion between SRM and EBC and vice versa is “loosely” as follows: x EBC = [( x × 0.375) + 0.46] SRM y SRM = [( y × 2.65) – 1.2] EBC. For instance, a golden blonde Pilsner with a color value of 4.5 SRM would be have an EBC color value of 4.5 multiplied by 2.65 minus 1.2 = 10.725 EBC. As a general rule, yellow to straw blonde beers have color values of 4 to 8 EBC (2 to 4 SRM), pale ales of perhaps 20 to 30 EBC (10 to 15 SRM), and stouts of 70 to 140 EBC (35 to 70 SRM). Colorant additives may have color values as...

sugar

sugar   Reference library

Rose Levy Beranbaum and Michael Krondl

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,258 words

...The starch adds what is perceived as a floury taste and makes powdered sugar less suitable than granulated sugar for use with ingredients that are not to be cooked. Powdered sugar comes in various particle sizes, the most common being (in increasing fineness) 4X, 6X, and 10X, although 3X, 12X, and 14X also exist. Nonmelting powdered sugar is coated with a fat to prevent it from melting when sprinkled on top of cakes or fruit. It gives off a slight, unpleasant mouth-coating sensation. Vanilla sugar is made by flavoring granulated sugar with vanilla. In Europe...

biofuel

biofuel   Reference library

Frank Rosillo-Calle

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,006 words

...R. Moreira , U. Schuchardt , and J. Goldemberg . “The Rationality of Biofuels.” Energy Policy 61 (2013): 595–598. Rocha, L. B. “Brazil’s Sugar and Ethanol in 2013 and Beyond.” International Sugar Journal 115, no. 1374 (2013): 392–398. Rosillo-Calle, Frank , and Francis X. Johnson , eds. Food versus Debate: An Informed Introduction to Biofuels . London: Zed, 2010. Frank Rosillo-Calle...

climate change

climate change   Reference library

Hans Schultz, Gregory V. Jones, Olivier Viret, and Maarten van Helden

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,149 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(see figure). This level of change is between two and ten times greater than that which was observed during the 20th century. The projected warming will continue to exhibit interannual-to-decadal variability and will not be regionally uniform, with variation in the rate of warming and whether the warming comes from greater increases in daytime or night-time temperatures. Research suggests that growing-season temperatures will increase by 2.0 ºC/3.6 ºF by 2050 , with increased seasonal temperature variability . However, the warming rates in wine regions...

Persia

Persia   Reference library

Jeremy Black, Patrick E. McGovern, and Philip Kennedy

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,391 words

...English, Dutch, and Portuguese trading companies as was retained by himself and his court. Wine was measured in ‘mans’, units of weight rather than volume. For an outline of modern viticulture, see iran . Johnson, H. , The Story of Wine (London and New York, 1989). Planhol, X. , ‘Une rencontre de l’Europe et de l’Iran: le vin de Shiraz’, in D. Boidanovic and J. L. Bacque-Grammont (eds.), Iran (Paris, 1972). Tavernier, J.-B. , Voyages en Perse (Geneva, 1970). Wills, C. J. , The Land of the Lion and the Sun (London, 1891). Wills, C. J. , Persia...

health properties

health properties   Reference library

Dominique Angèle Vuitton

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,362 words

...may play a role in cheese. See also dairy allergy and lactose intolerance . Alessandri, C. , et al. “Tolerability of a Fully Maturated Cheese in Cow’s Milk Allergic Children: Biochemical, Immunochemical, and Clinical Aspects.” PLoS One 7 (2012): e40945. Bertrand, X. , et al. “Effect of Cheese Consumption on Emergence of Antimicrobial Resistance in the Intestinal Microflora Induced by a Short Course of Amoxicillin-clavulanic Acid.” Journal of Applied Microbiology 102 (2007): 1052–1059. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations...

terroir

terroir   Reference library

John Gladstones, Richard Smart, and Cornelis (Kees) Van Leeuwen

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,680 words

...pour caractériser et étudier le terroir viticole: analyse de sol, cartographie pédologique ou étude écophysiologique?’, in Un raisin de qualité: de la vigne à la cuve , n° Hors Série du Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin (2001), 13–20. van Leeuwen, C. , Friant, P. , Choné, X. , Tregoat, O. , Koundouras, S. , and Dubourdieu, D. , ‘Influence of climate, soil, and cultivar on terroir’, American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 55/3 (2004), 207–17. van Leeuwen, C. , Roby, J. P. , Pernet, D. , and Bois, B. , ‘Methodology of...

Romania

Romania   Reference library

Caroline Gilby

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,768 words
Illustration(s):
1

...old indigenous varieties such as Crămpoșie and relatively new local crosses such as Negru de Drăgaşăni, which can produce long-lived reds, and the deeply coloured Novac. Other crosses enthusiastically developed by Romanian viticultural stations include Columna, a Pinot Gris x Grasă cross, and the red wine grape Codana. Wine laws Romanian wine law is fully compliant with eu regulations. PDO wines must be made from Vitis vinifera and in 2013 accounted for 653,186 hl (over 17 million gal) or 11% of the harvest. DOC (Denumire de Origine Controlată) is...

Tolbert, Frank X.

Tolbert, Frank X. (1912–1984)   Reference library

Mark H. Zanger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Frank X. Tolbert–Wick Fowler Championship Chili Cookoff was held in 2011 , with winners ranked 1 to 20 in the chili category, and nine other competitions for Texas foods. Tolbert issued a revised and expanded edition of A Bowl of Red in 1972 , and the Tolbert family opened a chili restaurant in Dallas, which was revived in 2006 by his daughter. [ See also Chili ; Journalism ; Tex-Mex Food .] Bibliography Ritchey, Ranger Bob . “ Nobody Knows More About the Original Chili Cook-Offs Than I Do .” http://golfterlingua.com/chili.html . Tolbert, Frank X. A...

Soya bean, soybean

Soya bean, soybean   Reference library

The Oxford Book of Health Foods

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol levels. The following is an example of the type of claim allowed: Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that include 25 grams of soy (soya) protein a day may reduce the risk of heart disease. One serving of (name of food) provides x grams of soy (soya) protein. In 2002 the UK Joint Health Claims Initiative followed suit allowing a generic claim: The inclusion of at least 25g soya protein per day as part of a diet low in saturated fat can help reduce blood cholesterol with the proviso that any product for...

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