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Querini, Vincenzo

Querini, Vincenzo (1479–1514)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
376 words

...famous Libellus ad Leonem X of 1513 , a visionary and radical proposal for the revitalization of the entire church. The two Camaldolese minced no words in calling for a thorough cleansing of abuses at all levels of the hierarchy, the revision of the code of canon law, liturgical uniformity, and the tightening of discipline in religious orders. Most remarkable were their sweeping recommendations for missions to the newly discovered lands in America and for union with Eastern Christians. Querini's sudden death thwarted Pope Leo X 's plan to appoint him a...

Biblical Chronology

Biblical Chronology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...contain a brief outline of biblical history from Isaac to Aaron, using primarily the phrasing formulas of the biblical genealogies ( Gn. 5.1–32 , 11.10–32 ): “X person begot, at Y years of age, so and so.” The outline starts with Isaac's marriage (at the age of 40; Gn. 25.20 ), his fatherhood (at the age of 60; Gn. 25.26 ), Abraham's admonition to his sons ( Isaac 's age being 65; cf. Jub. 20), Isaac's sending his son Jacob to Mesopotamia, Jacob's years in Canaan (69; Jub. 19.13, 27.19), and the years of service that he traded for the hands of...

Truth

Truth   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...“Sons of Truth” (1QH a x.16 [ii.14]; 4Q427 7.ii.14) or “Sons of Your Truth” (1QH a xv.33, xviii.29, xix.14 [vii.30, x.27, xi.11]) with God as their father (1QH a xvii.35 [ix.35]). Worshipers praise God for his truthful deeds (Barkhi Nafshi a , 4Q434 1.i.9; 1QH a xiv.12 [vi.9]), adhere to his truth, and serve him in truth (1QH a viii.25, xv.23 [xvi.6, vii.20]). They also lean on God's truth, which is a secure foundation (1QH a xiii.11, xiv 28–29, xv.17, xvii.32, xviii.19, xix.19, xxiii.16 [v.9, vi.25–26, vii.14, ix.32, x.17, xi.16, xviii.16]). God's...

Museums and Collections

Museums and Collections   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of Antiquities of Jordan ; Israeli Antiquities Authority .] Scrolls located here include 1Q5, 8 (partial), 9–12; 21; 28, 28b, 29; 41–49; 69; 2Q1–33, 2QX1; 3Q1–14, 3QX1–6; 4Q1–21, 22 (except one plate), 23–108, 110–161, 163–174, 176–575; 5Q1–25, X–1; 6Q1–31, X1–2; 7Q1–19; 8Q1–5, X1–3; 9Q; 10Q; 11Q1–18, 20–23; Mur 1–173; 8Ḥev 1–6; XḤev/Se 1–48; sem, Nab. 1–6, Gr. 1–6; Mas 1–951; Sdeir 1–4; 5/6Ḥev 1–64; XḤev/Se gr. 7; 34Se 1–8; 1Mish 1–8; Ghweir? 1–2; Nar 1–5; WDSP1–28; Khirbet Mird APHM1–54, 56–93, 95–98, 100, Josh 22cpa, Mt. 21cpa, Lk. 3cpa, Acts cpa,...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...in the opening strophes in which the writer expresses the reasons for his praise (see x.23–24 [ii:20–21]; xiii.7–8 [v.5–6]; xv.29–30; [vii:26–27]; xix.7 [xi.3]). The feature of ellipsis or gapping, where a term from the first line is to be understood in the second line, is also present in these psalms ( ki᾽ hityatsavti vigebul rish῾ah / ve-῾im ḥelka᾽im ba-goral , “for I was placed in the territory of wickedness / and with the evildoers by lot,” xi.25–26 [iii.24–25]; see also x.28 [ii.26]; xiii.18 [v.16]; xix.7–8 [xi.4–5]). More commonly, however, the...

Philo Judaeus

Philo Judaeus (c.25/20 bce–c.50)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... W ar 2 J ewish A ntiquities 18 D ead S ea S crolls Number 75 20 Etymology of Name 75, cf. 91 8.11.1 (2) (136) No Sacrifices 75 (19) (1QS ix.3–5; CD iii.18–iv.2; vi.11–12; xi.17–21) Rural Locales of Residences (vs. Cities) 76 (8.11.1) 18–20, 21–23 (124) Cf. 1QS viii.13–14; CD vii.6–7 (CD x.21; xi.5–6; xii.19) Residences 24–26, 30, 38 Voluntary Adult Membership 8.11.2–3 (120) 1QS i.11–13; v.7–11; vi.13–14; CD xv.5–6 Attitudes toward Wealth 76–78, 84 8.11.11 Cf. 13–17 1QS ix.21–24; x.18–19; xi.1–2; CD iv.17 Occupations 76, 78 8.11.6–9 Cf. 129 19 Cf. 1QS...

Luke, Gospel Of

Luke, Gospel Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the Messiah(s) (1QpHab vii.4–5). Their hermeneutics are quite similar as the introductory formulas for citations demonstrate ( e.g., Lk. 3.4 and 4QFlor 1.15; Lk. 4.10 and CD xi.20; Lk. 7.27 and 4QFlor 1.16). At times they even cite the same texts ( Is. 40.3 in Lk. 3.4 and 1QS viii.14; Is. 61.1–2 in Lk. 4.18 ; 7.22 and 1QH a xviii.14 [x.12]; 11QMelch ii.18–19; cf. 4Q521 2). The third area comprises the speculations about eschatological figures. The most impressive is Luke 1.32 and 35 and the Aramaic Apocalypse (4Q246)...

Hagu, Book Of

Hagu, Book Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...scriptures or other ancient Jewish writings. Therefore, its correct vocalization ( sefer he-hago/he-hagu/he-hagi/ha-hagi/he-hegi/ha-hegeh ) and meaning have been a matter of debate. Three out of the four passages in which the expression appears are in the Damascus Document (CD x.6; xiii.2; xiv.8 [restored]; Rule of the Congregation 1Q28a i.7). In the last passage the reading is clearly hhgy , whereas in the first two it could be hhgw or hhgy , the letters vav and yod not being clearly differentiated by the scribe. The latter is favored by Elisha...

Jude, Letter Of

Jude, Letter Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... 1990 , chap. 5]). C. Daniel [ 1968 ] identified the dreamers of Jude 8 as Essenes, but this ignores the clear evidence that Jude's opponents are antinomians. The allusion to Isaiah 57.20 as a prophetic reference to Jude's opponents in Jude 13 is paralleled by allusions to the same text in Hodayot a from Cave 1 at Qumran (1QH a x.14–15; xvi.15–16; cf. x.29–30; xiv.26 [ii.12–13; viii.14–15; cf. ii.27–28; vi.23]) Bibliography Bauckham, Richard . Jude, 2 Peter . World Biblical Commentary, 50. Waco, Tex., 1983. The most detailed recent commentary,...

Retribution

Retribution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...[v.x]). Another group of expressions focuses on the time of the action: “the day of vengeance” (1QM vii.5; 1QS ix.23, x.19), “the time of distress” (1QM i.11–12, xv.1), “the time of vengeance” (1QM xv.6), “the time appointed for punishment” (1QS iii.18; iv.18–19, 25; Damascus Document a , 4Q266 i.2), “the time of punishment” (CD xix.10, 11), “the time decreed'” (1QS iv.25), or “the time of judgment” (1QH a xiv.29 [vi.26]). There are other expressions that fall outside these two categories: “the curses of the (Mosaic) covenant” (1QS v.12; CD i.17–18, 20),...

Visitation, Day of

Visitation, Day of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...4Q525 21.1) and fire (1QS ii.8; 1QH a xiv.18 [vi.15]; 1QpHab x.5, 13; CD ii.5). The place of judgment is called the bor (“pit”; Wiles of the Wicked Woman, 4Q184 1.6; 4Q525 22.3–4)—and Shaḥat (1QM xiii.11; 1QH a xi.18 [iii.17]; Berakhot a , 4Q286 7.ii.4–5). The extent of the judgment is said to be eternal (1QS iv.12–13; see also ii.15; iv.19; v.13; 4Q286 7.ii.4–5). For the just, the reward is “life everlasting,” with the accoutrements of the messianic age (1QS iv.6–8; CD iii.20; Ages of Creation from Qumran Cave 4, 4Q181 1.3–4; 4Q525 14.ii.14)....

James, Letter Of

James, Letter Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...xv.10]). In James 1.25 the law is described as a “law of freedom,” a play on the consonants of ḥrwt in Exodus 32.16 , which may also have been known to the author of Rule of the Community (1QS x.6–8), where most scholars take the play in the sense of “engraved.” In James 2.23 , Abraham is described as a friend of God ( cf. Is. 41.8 ; 2 Chr. 20.7 ; Sg. of 3 12; Jub. 19.9; CD iii.2; Commentary on Genesis A [4Q252 ii.8]; Ap. Ab. 9.6; 10.5; T. Ab. A 1.6 and often). Some similarities are found in ethical instruction. The most explicit seem...

Inkwells

Inkwells   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...au Khirbet Qumrân. Rapport préliminaire sur la deuxième campagne. ” Revue biblique 61 (1954), 212. See plate X:b. de Vaux, Roland . Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls: The Schweich Lectures 1959 . London, 1973. See pages 29–33 and 104. Goranson, Stephen . “Qumran—The Evidence of the Inkwells.” British Archaeological Reports 19.6 (1993), 67. Goranson, Stephen . “Qumran—A Hub of Scribal Activity.” British Archaeological Reports 20.5 (1994), 36–39. Khairy, Nabil I. “ Ink-Wells of the Roman Period from Jordan. ” Levant 12 (1980), 155–162. Olenik,...

Judges, Book Of

Judges, Book Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...help of the Greek Minor Prophets (8Ḥev 1) also has a bearing on the textual history of the Septuagint of Judges . [See Minor Prophets .] The B group of manuscripts (B efj[m]qsz) with the subgroup irua 2 are related to that recension ( Bodine , 1980 ). The A group (A G abd[k]x Syr) is very close to the Old Greek, except for its hexaplaric characteristics. The Lucianic group (K Z glnw) is prehexaplaric and forms the best witness to the Old Greek in Judges . Bibliography Barthélemy, D. , and J. T. Milik . Qumran Cave 1 . Discoveries in the Judaean...

Rule of the Community

Rule of the Community   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...by the new member on admission (v.7b–20a); a miscellaneous collection of rules governing such matters as the administration of reproof or the requirement that in every place where there are ten men from the council of the community there shall not be lacking a priest (v.20b–vi.8a); rules for meetings of the community (vi.8b–13a); rules governing the admission of new members (vi.13b–23); and a list of punishments for infringements of the community's rules (vi.24–vii.25). The fifth section, 1QRule of the Community viii.1–x.8, a program for a new community,...

Jesus

Jesus   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...C8). The command to love. In the Damascus Document vi.20–21 the commandment of Leviticus 19.18 “You shall love your neighbor as yourself” is reflected in the version “one should love his brother ( see Lv. 19.17 ) as himself.” This also includes strangers: “one should look after the stranger” (Damascus Document vi.20–21 is also partly preserved in 4Q269 and 6Q15). In the smaller catalogs of virtues in 1Q Rule of the Community “love” is “faithful love” ( ahavat ḥesed —see ii.24, v.4, v.25, viii.2, x.26), and in the large catalog of virtues (1QS iv.3aβ–6a)...

Peter, Letters of

Peter, Letters of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...way” ( 2.15 ), and “the way of righteousness” ( 2.21 ), phrases that are variations on the early Christian absolute use of “the way” ( Acts 9.2 , 19.9 , 19.23 , 24.14 , 24.22 ; cf. 18.25–26 ). The latter resembles the Qumran usage (CD i.13, ii.6; 1QS viii.13–14, ix.17–18, x.20–21), and both reflect Isaiah 40.3 , though 2 Peter 's usage has moved away from this textual basis. Bibliography Achtemeier, Paul J. 1 Peter: A Commentary on First Peter . Hermeneia. Minneapolis, 1996. The commentary with fullest references to Dead Sea Scrolls. Bauckham,...

War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness

War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...are as follows: Daniel 11.40–12.3 is the basis for the war scenario in the War Scroll (1QM)i; Numbers 1 – 10.10 inspires the presentation of a twelve-tribe nation-army; and Genesis 10 prompts the list of nations to be conquered. Deuteronomy 20.2–4 and Numbers 10.9 are also quoted in x.1–6 to justify speeches of encouragement before battle. Finally, although there are no clear textual allusions, Ezekiel 38–39 (the Gog prophecy) may have contributed to the notion of a final war in which God defeats a mighty army of nations. Although...

Karaites

Karaites   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of boundaries” (CD v.20–vi.2), “builders of the wall” (CD iv.19; viii.12; xix.24–25), “lying and deceiving interpreters” (1QH a x.31; xii.7, 9–10), “shepherds” (“…of the exile,” for Karaites) (CD xix.5–13), and “deflectors from the way” (CD i.13; ii.6; 1QS x.21). Similarly, other Dead Sea Scroll terminology was used by Karaites to portray themselves, including “perfect in the way” (there are many instances of temimei derekh in the Damascus Document and the Rule of the Community, e.g., 1QS iv.22, as well as 1QM xiv.7, 1QH a x.36, and the Rule of the...

Genesis Apocryphon

Genesis Apocryphon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of stories in the Book of Genesis . Only three columns (1QapGen xx–xxii) are more or less completely preserved; three others (1QapGen ii, xii, xix) have a substantial part that is legible; and other columns (1QapGen i, iii, v–vii, x–xi, xvi–xvii) have preserved a few words or a few lines. To this text also belongs 1Q20 (“Apocalypse de Lamech”), which in a recent identification by Bruce Zuckerman and Michael O. Wise has been shown to be part of column 0, as well as the seven-line so-called Trever fragment, now lost, which still awaits official...

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