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4X

4X   Reference library

Hugh Davies

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
411 words

...Alles and G. di Giugno : ‘A One–card 64–channel Digital Synthesizer’, Computer Music Journal , vol.1/4 (1977), 7–9 G. di Giugno and J. Kott : Présentation du système 4X: processeur numérique de signal en temps réel , Rapports IRCAM, no.32/81 (Paris, 1981) C. Lippe : ‘Real–Time Interactive Digital Signal Processing: A View of Comptuer Music’, Computer Music Journal , vol.20/4 (1996), 21–4 Hugh Davies /R ...

Kelmas

Kelmas   Reference library

Arvydas Karaška

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
137 words

...Lithuania). The body of the kelmas is a hollowed stump of a willow, lime, or birch tree, leaving the walls 2 to 3 cm thick. A goatskin or dog skin is attached to one end with X or Y lacing. The kelmas is 30 to 40 cm tall and 25 to 40 cm in diameter. It is usually placed on the ground and struck with one or two wooden sticks or padded felt beaters. Until the beginning of the 20th century the kelmas was used as a rhythm instrument in village bands. Nowadays a modified type of kelmas is combined with skrabalai (cowbells). This type is 45 cm tall and 55 cm...

Perosi, Lorenzo

Perosi, Lorenzo (20 Dec. 1872)   Reference library

Denis Arnold

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
133 words

...Perosi, Lorenzo ( b Tortona, nr Piacenza , 20 Dec. 1872 ; d Rome , 12 Oct. 1956 ). Italian composer . He studied in Rome and Milan, then went in 1893 to Regensburg, where he worked with F. X. Haberl . In 1894 he was appointed maestro di cappella at St Mark's, Venice, being ordained shortly afterwards. In 1898 he was made director of the Sistine Chapel, in which capacity he was influential in drawing up the *motu proprio of 1903 , advocating the return to a ‘pure’ style of church music. Perosi's compositions of this period, which include...

Roethinger

Roethinger   Reference library

Marc Schaefer

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
318 words

...instruments being that built for Ernstein (1914; three manuals, 64 stops). He subsequently sought to apply the principles of ‘Alsatian reform’ as proposed by Emile Rupp, Albert Schweitzer, and F.X. Mathias: these organs include Strasbourg Synagogue, where Rupp was organist (1925), Strasbourg Cathedral (1935), Amiens Cathedral (1937), Bourges Cathedral (1955), St Pie X, Luxembourg (1958), Gérardmer (1960), and Arras Cathedral (1963; four manuals, 76 stops). In 1939 Roethinger undertook the restoration of the Silbermann organ in Ebersmunster. The 1960s saw a...

Tumbol

Tumbol   Reference library

Monique Brandily

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
332 words

...of Chad. (1) Large paired conical drum of the Kanembu people of northern Chad. It has a wooden ovoid body and two cowhide heads, laced in an ‘X’ pattern with single holes for the fastening ties. It is about 55 cm tall with a large diameter of 45 cm and a small diameter of 20 to 40 cm. To increase the tension large wooden pegs are inserted into the lacing holes of the larger head and at the crossing of the X. One of the pair is ‘male’, the other ‘female’. ‘Tumbol’ is the generic name but the players refer to the female drum as ‘tumboli’; its upper head is...

Chrismann

Chrismann   Reference library

Guy Oldham

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
272 words

...stops; redesigned by Josef Breinbauer in 1856–67, now three manuals, 31 stops). Another important surviving organ is at St Laurenz am Schottenfeld, Vienna (1788; two manuals, originally 25, now 22 stops). Bibliography R. Quoika : ‘Über den Orgelbaustil Abbate F.X. Chrismanns’, Katholische Kirchenmusik II: Vienna (1954), 249–50 H.J. Busch : ‘Zur Klanggestalt der Grossen Orgel des Franz Xaver Chrismann in der Stiftskirche zu St. Florian’, Organa austriaca, vol.1 (1976), 78–108 W. Kreuzhuber : ‘Orgeln und Orgelbau in Oberösterreich im 19. ...

Streitwieser, Franz Xaver

Streitwieser, Franz Xaver (16 Sept 1939)   Reference library

Ralph T. Dudgeon

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
351 words

...des Landes in that year. In 2013 Streitwieser donated several hundred instruments and related materials, not part of the Kremsegg collection, to Polk State College in Florida, where a selection is displayed at the Lake Wales Arts Center. Bibliography F.X. Streitwieser : Das Jagdhorn in Böhmen und Mähren: Schriftenreihe zur sudetendeutschen Musik , vol.3 (Regensburg, 1981) R.T. Dudgeon : Das Flügelhorn: die Geschichte des Flügelhorns, illustriert am Beispiel der Sammlung Streitwieser im Musikinstrumentenmuseum Schloss Kremsegg/The...

Cuvillier

Cuvillier   Reference library

Denis Watel

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
469 words

... Pierre Florent Cuvillier ( b Saint-Omer, France, 25 June 1779; d Saint-Omer, France, 17 July 1847), elder son and apprentice of Nicolas, was active from 1805 to 1845. He took advantage of the development of military bands in the reigns of Napoleon, Louis XVIII and Charles X. He also competed with woodwind makers from Lyon in the development of Russian bassoons during the second quarter of the 19th century. Extant instruments by Florent Cuvillier are numerous, including flutes, two- to 10-key oboes, a nine-key english horn in angular form, five- to...

psalter

psalter   Reference library

Alex Lingas

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
504 words

...those by Cardinal Quiñones , Pius V , and Pius X —universally used until 1971 , when the psalter was spread over four weeks. Such an extended cycle had previously been implemented during the English Reformation by Cranmer , whose Book of Common Prayer distributed the psalter between the offices of Matins and Evensong over the course of a month. The Palestinian Psalter used in the worship of the modern Orthodox Church, however, continues to be recited weekly during most of the liturgical year. Its 20 large sections or kathismata , each of which is...

Biblical instruments

Biblical instruments   Reference library

Joachim Braun

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
7,678 words

...is difficult to explain this wide archaeological gap; possibly the references in the Bible to cymbals in the service of God and the Temple are later interpolations.(vii) Nevel ( 1 Samuel x.5; 2 Samuel vi.5; 1 Kings x.12; Isaiah v.12, xiv.11; Amos v.23, vi.5; Psalms lvii.8, lxx.22, lxxxi.2, xcii.3, cviii.2, cl.3; Nehemiah xii.27; 1 Chronicles xiii.8, xv.16, 20, and 28; xvi.5, xxv.1 and 6; 2 Chronicles v.12, ix.11, xx.28, xxix.25; nevel ‘asor : Psalms xxxiii.2, xcii.3, cxliv.9). The root nbl can be vocalized in two ways, naval and nevel (Heb...

Berio, Luciano

Berio, Luciano (24 Oct. 1925)   Reference library

Paul Griffiths

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
707 words

...a comic study for trombone ( Sequenza V , 1966 ), an obsessive oboe piece ( Sequenza VII , 1969 ), and a 20-minute stretch of continuous bassoon sound achieved by circular breathing ( Sequenza XII , 1994 ). Some of these have, in a typical manner, spawned larger works: Sequenza VI for viola ( 1967 ), for instance, is enveloped by music for nine instruments in Chemins II ( 1967 ) and for large orchestra in Chemins III ( 1968 ), while Sequenza X for trumpet ( 1984 ) gave rise to Kol-Od for trumpet and ensemble ( 1996 ). Berio's merging of music into...

Čháŋčheğa

Čháŋčheğa   Reference library

Michael Suing

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
730 words

...19th and early 20th centuries, effectively decreasing the number of available drums and of persons familiar with the cultural protocol necessary for keeping a drum. Bibliography B. Black Bear and R.D. Theisz : Songs and Dances of the Lakota (Aberdeen, SD, 1976) W.K. Powers : War Dance: Plains Indians Musical Performance (Tucson, AZ, 1990) I. Mačák : ‘About the Connection between the Symbols of Shamanic Drums and Royal Insignia’, Liber Amicorum Jeannine Lambrechts-Douillez , ed. F. Gétreau (Antwerp, 2008), 1–20 M.F. Suing : Heartbeat...

Pizzicato

Pizzicato   Reference library

Sonya Monosoff

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
754 words

...and top-to-bottom may be indicated, usually by upward and downward arrows (though the signs for up- and down-bow have occasionally been used for this). In jazz and dance-band music of the 20th century, the double bass part is often pizzicato throughout, sometimes requiring such techniques as ‘slapping’ the string. Other special pizzicato effects used in 20th-century music include plucking with the fingernail, to produce a rather sharp sound, or plucking close to the bridge, which produces a dry sound lacking in resonance. Sonya Monosoff /R ...

modes

modes   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
801 words

...on A and C (none on the unsuitable B), with their plagal forms, so that the table above was complemented as follows: Mode Range Dominant IX (A) A–A E X (P) E–E C XI (A) C–C G XII (P) G–G E Glareanus gave his 12 modes what he thought to be their orig. Gr. names and these (though incorrect) have become accepted: I. Dorian VII. Mixolydian II. HypoDorian VIII. HypoMixolydian III. Phrygian IX. Æolian IV. HypoPhrygian X. HypoÆolian V. Lydian XI. Ionian VI. HypoLydian XII. HypoIonian It should be clearly understood that the difference between the various modes is not...

Oberheim, Thomas Elroy

Oberheim, Thomas Elroy (7 July 1936)   Reference library

Hugh Davies and Kyle Devine

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
552 words

...were based on the SEM (one module for each voice) but featured a keyboard developed by the newly formed E-mu Systems. The 8-Voice and less popular 6-Voice followed soon after. The company then produced two programmable synthesizers, the monophonic OB-1 (1976) and the polyphonic OB-X (1979). Several variants of the latter followed (the OB-Xa being the most recognizable for its use on Van Halen’s 1984 song Jump ), as well as a further Expander Module, the Matrix 6 and 12 synthesizers, a digital sequencer, and a drum machine. In 1985 Oberheim lost control of the...

Schweitzer, Albert

Schweitzer, Albert   Reference library

Erwin R. Jacobi

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
605 words

...1927 Epilogue’, 200–17 ‘Die Reform unseres Orgelbaues auf Grund einer allgemeinen Umfrage bei Orgelspielern und Orgelbauern in deutschen und romanischen Ländern’, IMusSCR III : Vienna 1909 , 581–607; Eng. trans. in Joy (1951) as ‘The Organ that Europe Wants’, 255–89 with F.X. Mathias : Internationales Regulativ für Orgelbau’, IMusSCR III : Vienna 1909 , 636–79 ‘Zur Reform des Orgelbaus’, Monatschrift für Gottesdienst und kirchliche Kunst , vol.32 (1927), 148–54; Eng. trans. in Joy (1951) as ‘Reform in Organ Building’, 217–24 ‘Gutachten über die Orgel...

Markneukirchen

Markneukirchen   Reference library

Enrico Weller

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,303 words

...Latin America). In the Bohemian part the following towns belong to the ‘music corner’: Graslitz/Kraslice (violin making since 1610, brass instrument making since 1752; since the mid-19th century a regional centre of wind instrument making by such factories as Bohland & Fuchs, F.X. Hüller, Hüttl, and Kohlert) and Schönbach/Luby (violin making since 1723, from c 1880 to World War II the regional centre for string instruments and components by companies including Osmanek, Placht, and Höfner). After World War II most western Bohemian instrument makers left their...

Vanden Gheyn

Vanden Gheyn   Reference library

Luc Rombouts

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
691 words

...Les folies d’Espagne and Cecilia . Bibliography X. Van Elewyck : Matthias Van den Gheyn, le plus grand organiste et carillonneur belge du XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1862/ R ) G. van Doorslaer : ‘Les van den Ghein, fondeurs de cloches, canons, sonnettes et mortiers à Malines’, Annales de l’Académie royale d’archéologie de Belgique , vol.62 (1910), 463–666 R. Barnes : ‘Matthias Van den Gheyn’, Bulletin of the Guild of Carillonneurs in North America , vol.10 (1957), 11–20 P.F. Vernimmen : ‘De klokkengieters Vanden Gheyn en Van Aerschodt’, ...

Korg

Korg   Reference library

Hugh Davies and Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
753 words

...the Lambda string synthesizer (1979), the polyphonic and programmable Trident (1980, 1982), Trinity, Prophecy, the Triton (with touch-sensitive control screen), the PA series (2000), the KARMA (2001) which utilizes ‘Kay’s algorithmic real time music architecture’, and the Kronos X workstation (2011). The Wavestation was re-released as a software synthesizer in 2004. Tsutomo’s son Seiki Katoh succeeded his father as president of Korg, Inc. Bibliography G. Reid : ‘40 Years of Korg Gear, The History of Korg–Part 1’, Sound on Sound (Oct 2002)...

editions, historical and critical

editions, historical and critical   Reference library

Jeffrey Dean

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,228 words

...from the 16th and 17th centuries were edited by Franz Commer ( Musica sacra , 1839–42 ; Collectio operum musicorum Batavorum saeculi XVI , 1844–58 ; Cantiones XVI, XVII saeculorum , 1860–87 ) and Carl Proske ( Musica divina , 1853–61 ; continued by J. Schrems and F. X. Haberl , 1865–77 ). Jean-Baptiste Cartier's L'Art du violon (Paris, 1798 ) includes a wide range of 17th- and 18th-century violin music from Italy, France, and Germany, much of it derived from manuscript sources. Le Trésor des pianistes , edited by Aristide and Louise...

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