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Phalaecean

Phalaecean   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and R. A. Swanson

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

.... In classical prosody , a hendecasyllabic line that has the pattern x x – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ – ᴗ – x, so called after the Gr. poet Phalaikos ( 4th c. bce ?). It is used at times by Sophocles ( Philoctetes 136, 151) and Aristophanes ( Ecclesiazusae 942 ff.); the Alexandrian poets employed it for whole poems, e.g., Theokritos ( Epode 20), Phalaikos ( Anthologia Palatina 13.6). In Lat., it is attempted by Laevius and Varro but finds its deepest roots in Catullus, e.g., Ădēste ēndĕcăsyllăbī, quŏt ēstīs. Forty of his 113 extant poems are in hendecasyllables ,...

Invective

Invective   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...the epigram , incl. scurrilous and vindictive epigrams, which were produced in the 20th c., notably by J. V. Cunningham . See dozens , flyting , toast . Bibliography J. Addison , Spectator , no. 23 ; An Anthology of Invective and Abuse (1929) and More Invective (1930), both ed. H. Kingsmill ; J. C. Manning , Blue Invective (1973) ; The Book of Insults, Ancient and Modern , ed. N. McPhee (1978) ; Tygers of Wrath: Poems of Hate, Anger, and Invective , ed. X. J. Kennedy (1981) ; A. Richlin , The Garden of Priapus (1983) ; The Devil’s Book...

Parnassianism

Parnassianism   Reference library

A. L. Sells

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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2017

...Sp. Am. modernismo of Rubén Darío and his contemporaries as well as several Eur. poetry movements predicated on symbolism , aestheticism , and decadence , and serving as an often negative point of reference for many 20th-c. modernists in the U.S., Brazil, and elsewhere. The movement was initiated by Catulle Mendès ( 1841–1909 ) and L.-X. de Ricard ( 1843–1911 ) in the early 1860s, when the Parnassians first met in Lemerre’s bookshop and in the salon of the Marquise de Ricard; later they gathered in the salon of Mme. Leconte de Lisle, whose formidable...

Peru, Poetry of

Peru, Poetry of   Reference library

E. Kristal and M. Ortiz Canseco

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,517 words

...Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA, the most enduring of all political parties in 20th-c. Peru, which produced important poets such as Magda Portal ( 1900–89 ). In a period concerned with the impact of new information technologies, the star of Carlos Oquendo de Amat ( 1905–36 ) has been rising. His 5 metros de poemas (5 Meters of Poetry, 1927 ) is considered the first Peruvian multimedia poem in which the written word plays with the conventions of x-ray photography, cinema, and advertising. Its 28 pages unfold into a single continuous sheet...

Parody

Parody   Reference library

L. Hutcheon and M. Woodland

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,857 words

...of Parody and Imitation , ed. W. Jerrold and R. M. Leonard (1913) ; A Parody Anthology , ed. C. Wells (1919) ; Apes and Parrots , ed. J. Collings Squire (1928) ; American Literature in Parody , ed. R. P. Falk (1955) ; Parodies , ed. D. Macdonald (1960) ; The Brand X Anthology of Poetry , ed. W. Zaranka (1981) ; The Faber Book of Parodies , ed. S. Brett (1984) ; Unauthorized Versions , ed. K. Baker (1990) ; Romantic Parodies, 1797–1831 , ed. D. A. Kent and D. R. Ewen (1992). Criticism and History: S. Martin , On Parody (1896) ; ...

Latin Poetry

Latin Poetry   Reference library

A. Barchiesi, W. Wetherbee, T.V.F. Brogan, S. Penn, and W. J. Kennedy

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
7,822 words

...and Romans.) D. Genres and Authors. In ancient Rome, the canon is initially formed by authors who impersonate and continue Gr. authors: only in the generation of Tibullus (ca. 55–19 bce ) and later Ovid do we begin to find authors who do not identify themselves as “new X,” X being a canonical Gr. poet (e.g., Menander, Homer, Callimachus, Theocritus, Alcaeus). Ovid is also, not coincidentally, the first author who dispenses with the convention of patronage (claiming a powerful figure as friend, protector, and, in some cases, sponsor of the work) and...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

W. Martin

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
7,279 words

...type has an analogical or equational structure: A is to B as C is to D. Although only two of the four terms need be mentioned (A and D, or B and C), we must infer the other two in order to derive the meaning: “the evening of life” enables us to reconstruct “evening is to day as X is to life.” Here we find the bifurcation that will henceforth characterize discussions of tropes: one type is based on accepted conceptual relationships (here, genus-species), and the other type includes all tropes that cannot be so defined. Species-genus and species-species...

Alcaic

Alcaic   Reference library

R. A. Swanson, J. W. Halporn, and T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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2017

...Alcaeus of Lesbos (fl. early 6th c. bce ) that consists of two 11-syllable lines (alcaic hendecasyllables ) having the form x – ᴗ – x – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ – followed by a third line that is a rhythmic extension of the first two: x – ᴗ – x – ᴗ x – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ – – (Snell). The Alexandrian grammarians separated the third line into two parts, after the ninth position, creating a four-line stanza, the third line of nine syllables ( x – ᴗ – x – ᴗ – –) and the fourth of ten ( – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ – –). The first two lines, the hendecasyllables, are known as greater alcaics,...

Colon

Colon   Reference library

A. T. Cole

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...rather than the metron is felt to be the basic rhythmical unit. Verbal-rhythmical cola appear frequently in discussions of the structure of metric forms such as the Gr. trimeter , which, in the earliest stages of its devel., is a variable dicolon: either x – ᴗ – x + – ᴗ – x – ᴗ – or x – ᴗ – x – ᴗ + – x – ᴗ –, depending on whether the penthemimeral or hephthemimeral caesura , one or the other of which was obligatory, appears in the particular line under consideration. It is perfectly possible, however, for this verbal-rhythmical dicolon to be a rhetorical...

Classical Prosody

Classical Prosody   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan, A. T. Cole, and L. Blumenfeld

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,292 words

...the glyconic ( x x – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ –); seven-syllable patterns combine with iambic or trochaic to yield the two most famous aeolic forms, the alcaic and sapphic hendecasyllable (respectively, x – ᴗ – x – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ – and – ᴗ – x – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ – x ). The four-and three-syllable patterns are the familiar iamb ( x – ᴗ – ), trochee ( – ᴗ – x ), ionic ( – – ᴗ ᴗ and ᴗ ᴗ – –), choriamb ( – ᴗ ᴗ –), and dactyl ( – ᴗ ᴗ). Dactylic and choriambic are inserted rather than prefixed or suffixed to other forms, yielding, e.g., the lesser asclepiad ( x x – ᴗ ᴗ – – ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ...

Anacreontic

Anacreontic   Reference library

P. A. Rosenmeyer

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

.... The term anacreontic denotes both a meter and a literary mode. The anacreontic meter (anaclasts: ᴗ ᴗ – ᴗ – ᴗ – – or hemiambs: x – ᴗ – ᴗ – x) is named after the ancient Gr. poet Anacreon of Teos ( 6th c. bce ), who used it frequently in his verses. The meter was not originally associated with a particular mood: thus, Aeschylus used anacreontics in an emotional graveside speech ( Choephoroi 327–30 ), while Euripides included them in his satyr play Cyclops ( 495–500 ). But by 250 bce , Anacreon was best known for his sympotic verses, and...

Foot

Foot   Reference library

A. M. Devine, L. D. Stephens, T.V.F. Brogan, and G. B. Cooper

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,780 words
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...the question of what principles are used to construct the foot. Even well into the 20th c., classicizing prosodists were inclined to admit nearly as many feet in Eng. poetry as in Gr.: Saintsbury lists 21 feet; as late as 1979 , Paul Fussell admits six but thinks “it does no harm to be acquainted with” 11 others. But the great majority recognized, by the late 19th c., only four to six types: these included the two commonest binary feet—iambs (x/) and trochees (/x)—and ternary feet—dactyls (/xx) and anapests (xx/)—with the ter-nary feet far less common...

Antithesis

Antithesis   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and A. W. Halsall

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

... syncrisis . Antithesis combined with chiasmus may be seen in the old definition of the scholar: “one who knows something about everything and everything about something.” More recently, Group μ ‎ describes antithesis as a metalogism of addition, which asserts both “X” and “X is not non-X.” Quinn puts this similarly: “rather than saying something and then repeating it in other words, you both deny its contrary and assert it,” so that “you have said the thing in two different ways.” Antithesis thus offers “the advantage of giving a sense of completeness...

Ring Composition

Ring Composition   Reference library

W. W. Parks and S. S. Bill

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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2017

...a “ring” framing a nonannular core. Van Otterlo , the pioneer in this branch of literary study, distinguished between simple framing structures, in which a single repeating element encloses the core material in the pattern a-x-a , and annular systems, in which the core material is set off by two or more concentric rings, e.g., a-b-c-x-c-b-a . The repeating elements in an annular system are chiastically ordered. Thus, ring composition provides a mechanism for configuring circles into the production and reception of linear narratives. The terms ring...

Indian Prosody

Indian Prosody   Reference library

E. Gerow and A. W. Entwistle

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,757 words

...type (a) in that it is composed of four feet, each of which must have eight syllables; but it is like (b) in that its line appears to fall into two four-syllable halves, the first of which is quantitatively quite free (though x L L x does not normally occur), the second of which is obligatorily L G G x in odd feet and in even feet L G L x. A “trochaic” cadence, thus, alternates with an “iambic.” Many variations on this pattern are, however, found. The older Vedic meters ( chandas ) are composed generally of feet with 8, 11, or 12 syllables. Of the...

Bridge

Bridge   Reference library

A. M. Devine and L. D. Stephens

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
745 words
Illustration(s):
2

...above cannot be subsumed along with (1d) under a generalized constraint on disyllables, so that the initial heavy syllable of spondee-shaped words is independently constrained. Furthermore, in the iambographers, words of the shape – – ᴗ x are strongly avoided beginning in third anceps. In the hexameter, words of the shape – – x are strongly avoided beginning in the arsis of the fifth foot. These constraints unite with the bridges to form a finely structured hierarchy of strictness according to genre and style. The definition of a bridge as a point in the...

Galicia, Poetry of

Galicia, Poetry of   Reference library

A. Carreño

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,033 words

...of texts and critical studies led to the identification of a Golden Age of poetry. Some, such as X. L. Méndez Ferrín (b. 1938 ), have followed Celso Emilio Ferreiro ( 1914–79 ) and Lorenzo Varela ’s ( 1917–78 ) social poetry, while others have maintained Antonio’s avant-garde orientation, adding a tendency toward intimism ( Claudio Rodríguez Fer , b. 1956 ), and biographical content (Antonio Tovar, 1911–84 ). The last decades of the 20th c. saw the emergence of three poetic groups, each associated with a major metropolitan area—Vigo; A Coruña;...

English Prosody

English Prosody   Reference library

T. Cable, R. H. Osberg, T. Cable, G. T. Wright, and R. McDonald

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
4,520 words

...stress, and weak stress. The five types (labeled A through E) appear in every intro. to OE poetry of the past century, and the scheme serves as a convenient taxonomy for mnemonic, pedagogical, and classificatory purposes: A / x / x gomban gyldan B x / x / þenden wordum wēold C x / / x ofer hronrāde D / / \ x cwēn Hrōðgāres E / \ x / flōdȳþum feor Still, one may question whether Sievers’s types are the cause (the paradigm) or the effect (epiphenomena of a more basic pattern) and in any event whether the types are compatible with the two-stress idea. Types D...

Trochaic

Trochaic   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,332 words

...a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed; in the quantitative meters of the cl. langs., however, the elements were long and short. In Lat., the trochaic foot comprised one long syllable followed by one short, whereas in Gr., the unit was the trochaic metron , – ᴗ – x (x denotes anceps ). Trochaic measures were used in archaic Gr. poetry at least from the time of Archilochus; and in Gr. tragedy and comedy , they appear in both choral lyric and spoken dialogue. In Lat. comedy, the trochaic seems to have lent itself esp. well to rapid movement...

Spanish Prosody

Spanish Prosody   Reference library

D. C. Clarke

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,005 words

...less prominent strophic arrangements (e.g., villancico ), were being developed for both didactic purpose and popular entertainment, the courtly and learned poets of the 14th and 15th cs. were often composing in Galician-Port., which had been used in the 13th c. by King Alfonso X el Sábio (the Wise), e.g., in his Cantigas de Santa María , and was still lingering in the early 15th c., when most poets were favoring Castilian. The couplet ( pareado, pareja ), the tercet ( terceto ) in any rhyme scheme, various types of eco ( see echo verse ), and some...

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