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African-American rhetoric

African-American rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,882 words

...Islam (Lincoln coined the term Black Muslims ); contains a brief history of black nationalism in the United States. Malcolm X . Malcolm X Speaks , edited by George Breitman . New York, 1989. Originally published in 1965, this is the best-known and most widely available collection of key speeches and statements from Malcolm X's last year; contains “The Ballot or the Bullet.” Malcolm X , and Alex Haley . The Autobiography of Malcolm X . New York, 1965. Moses, Wilson Jeremiah . The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850–1925 . Hamden, Conn., 1978. Out of...

Ambiguity

Ambiguity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,995 words

...however slight, which gives room for alternative reactions to the same piece of language” constitutes ambiguity; even when one does not perceive his or her own symbol use as multivocal, argued Empson, it legitimately may be labeled “ambiguous” if anyone else “might be puzzled” (p. x). Empson used this assumption not to deny the possibility of shared meaning, but to justify the rich potential of symbolic ambiguity for literary contexts. Finally and least conventionally, deconstructionists, such as Jacques Derrida ( Writing and Difference , 1978 ), argued that...

Style

Style   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,178 words

...” Renaissance-Poetik. Renaissance Poetics , edited by Heinrich F. Plett , pp. 133–146. Berlin, 1994. Müller, Wolfgang G. “ Die traditionelle Rhetorik und einige Stilkonzepte des 20. Jahrhunderts. ” Die Aktualität der Rhetorik , edited by Heinrich F. Plett , pp. 160–175. Munich, 1996. Müller, Wolfgang G. “ Stil. ” Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie . X, pp. 150–159. Basel 1999. Murphy, James J. Rhetoric in the Middle Ages . Berkeley, 1974. Murphy, James J. Renaissance Rhetoric. A Short-Title Catalogue of Works on Rhetorical Theory from...

Scouse

Scouse   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of Irish background, replace / θ, ð ‎/ with /t, d/, as in ‘dese tree’ for these three . Month may be pronounced ‘muntth’ . (7) In syllable-initial and syllable-final positions, a fricative can follow a stop, as in ‘k/x/ing’ for king (where /x/ represents the fricative in ScoE loch ), ‘me d/z/ad’ for my dad , ‘back/x/’ for back , and ‘bad/z/’ for bad . (8) Scouse is often described as having a flat intonation, in effect a rise with a level tail where RP has a fall: in the statement I don’t like it , it goes up on like then runs level, whereas...

Sense

Sense   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...(such as the sense of sight ) through analogous faculties of mind or spirit ( a sense of humour ), intelligence ( Show some sense! ), and what is logical and proper (the opposite of nonsense ) to meaning ( the sense of a text ) and the idea that many words have submeanings ( X used in the sense of Y ; the various senses of the word ‘mark’ ). Although people agree that words may have different ‘senses’, there is no agreed means of establishing just how many senses many polysemous (many-sensed) words have ( see polysemy ). The boundaries between senses...

poststructuralism

poststructuralism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,415 words

... x, y, z . Now, there is no simple linear correlation between terms on each of the different levels. In other words, we do not say, for instance, that x is realized by p , which is, in turn, realized by a . Instead, there is a metaredundancy relation such that x, y, z redounds not with p, q, r but with the redundancy of p, q, r with a, b, c . Thus, x, y, z REDOUNDS WITH ( p, q, r REDOUNDS WITH a, b, c ). The relations between levels are hierarchical and symmetrical at all levels. There is no causality here: we do not say that x is caused...

Spelling Reform

Spelling Reform   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,878 words

...new letters (with some variation to mark etymology and distinguish homophones), but there was little serious advocacy or reform until 1768 , when Benjamin Franklin assessed the needs of learners and poor spellers and devised an alphabet that did not use the letters c, j, q, w, x, y (which he considered superfluous) and introduced new characters for the vowels in hot, up and the consonants in the, thin, -ing, she . The scheme did not, however, receive much attention. A major 19c innovator was Isaac pitman , who moved from the invention of his phonetic...

Scottish English

Scottish English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,213 words

...monophthong in most regions for /i, e, o, u/ as in steel, stale, stole, stool . (6) The monophthongs and diphthongs total 14 vowel sounds, perhaps the smallest vowel system of any long-established variety of English. (7) ScoE retains from Scots the voiceless velar fricative /x/: for example, in such names as Brechin and MacLachlan , such Gaelicisms as loch and pibroch , such Scotticisms as dreich and sough , and for some speakers such words of Greek provenance as patriarch and technical . (8) The wh - in such words as whale, what, why is ...

Suffix

Suffix   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,357 words

...Japanese, Viennese, Congolese, -i Iraqi, Pakistani, -ian Brazilian, Canadian, Romanian, -ic Asiatic, -ie Scottie, townie, -ish British, Yiddish, -ite Hittite, Manhattanite, -ot Cypriot, Epirot, -s ( e ) Erse, Scots, -tch Dutch, -wegian Glaswegian, Norwegian, -x Manx, -y gypsy, Romany, Taffy. Forming adjectives -able teachable, -aire doctrinaire, -al doctrinal, ducal, incremental, royal, -alian Episcopalian, -alic vocalic, -an human, -ane humane, -ant concomitant, radiant, -ar solar, -arian vegetarian, -aric velaric...

Scots

Scots   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
4,432 words

...most striking result of which is the split of Early Scots /iː/ into two phonemes in Scots and ScoE: /aɪ/ in ay (yes), buy, alive, rise, tied , and /əɪ/ in aye (always), life, rice, bite, tide . (3) The consonant system retains the old english voiceless velar fricative /x/ in teuch, heich (equivalents of tough, high ) and many other words (including such Gaelic loans as clarsach, loch, pibroch ), and the cluster /xt/ in dochter, nicht ( daughter, night ). Such forms were once universal in English and have only become obsolete in Northern...

Dialect

Dialect   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
6,534 words

...idiomatic, etc.) serve as the defining core of a language, while the clusters of differences serve as the defining cores of the various dialects. Thus, a language X that has dialects A, B, C, D, E, may have 15 features, 12 of which are shared by A, B, C, 10 by B, C, D, 11 by B, D, E, and so forth. Perhaps only 8 features are common to all five. If they are, they form the core or common features of X, to which may be added additional features acquired through the conventions necessary for a standard language. The evolution of dialects Using a biological analogy...

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