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Anaphora

Anaphora   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,092 words

...man who loves Mary is happy . (18′) [The x : man x & [λ z ]( z loves Mary) x ]( x is happy). (19) The man whom Mary loves is happy . (19′) [The x : man x & [λ z ](Mary loves z ) x ]( x is happy). However, for simplicity, the relative pronouns in (18–19) are often thought of as variables bound by determiners, since (18′) and (19′) are equivalent to (18″) and (19″): (18″) [The x : man x & x loves Mary]( x is happy). (19″) [The x : man x & Mary loves x ]( x is happy). Consider the following: (20) John bought some donkeys which were...

Logical Form

Logical Form   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,393 words

...to take wide scope: (17) Every student read some book I had given him . (18) For all students x, there exists a book y that I gave x, such that x read y . (19) # There exists a book y that I gave x, such that for all students x, x read y . Second, the trace of the quantifier must c-command the pronoun (see Higginbotham 1983 ): (20a) [ Every boy ] 1 kissed [ his 1 mother ]. (20b) [ Every boy ] 1 [t 1 kissed [ his 1 mother ]]. (LF of (20a) (21a) *[ His 1 mother ] kissed [ every boy ] 1 . (21b) *[[ Every boy ] 1 [ his 1 mother ] kissed ...

Pashto

Pashto   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,638 words
Illustration(s):
4

...(3) p a ∼ pa ‘foot’ nmar∼nwar ∼ lmar ‘sun’ The phonemes written ǧ are especially noteworthy. They developed as retroflex spirants ŝ ẑ , and are so realized in the southwestern dialects, including the prestigious one of Qandahar. In the southeastern dialects, in Pakistan, they have largely coalesced with š ž respectively. In the northwestern and central dialects, both phonemes have become prepalatal spirants γ̌; but in the northeastern dialects, with Peshawar as their center, they have merged with x g (not γ!). The symbols ǧ thus...

Caucasian Languages

Caucasian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,729 words
Illustration(s):
4

...singularity vs. plurality, or animacy vs. inanimacy of the intransitive S or DO; e.g. in Svan: (3a) x-uγv-a 3- ver -have-3. inan ‘s/he has it’ (3b) x-a-q'-a 3- ver -have-3. an ‘s/he has him/her’ In the Present subseries, ‘to convey’ is realized by the addition of the appropriate directional prev[erb] to the basic expression for ‘to have’; e.g., in the Lent'ex dialect of Svan: (4a) a-x-u-γv-a prev -3-have-3. inan ‘s/he brings it’ (4b) a-x-a-q'-a prev -3- ver -have-3. an ‘s/he brings him/her’ 1.3. Syntax Word order patterns include A[djective] +...

Bambara-Maninka-Jula

Bambara-Maninka-Jula   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,225 words
Illustration(s):
1

...morphology, as shown in (1): (1) Active and “passive” Active n ma     jara faga I completive.negative lion kill ‘I didn't kill the lion.’ Passive jara ma     faga lion completive.negative kill ‘The lion was not killed.’ Another feature of note is a reduplication construction X o X (e.g. don o don ‘every/whatever day’), which was used in Culy 1985 to argue that the vocabulary of Bambara is not context-free. 4. Syntax Word order in BMJ is very rigid. Sentence order is S Aux O V PP Adv. Just as the verb separates its modifiers, so too does the noun...

Diglossia

Diglossia   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,834 words

...1. Use of H and L Varieties across Different Types of Situations . (Ferguson, 1959:329) H L Sermon in church or mosque x Instructions to servants, waiters, workmen, clerks x Personal letter x Speech in parliament, political speech x University lecture x Conversation with family, friends, colleagues x News broadcast x Radio soap opera x Newspaper editorial, news story, photo caption x Caption on political cartoon x Poetry x Folk literature x 1.2. Prestige Under this heading, Ferguson draws attention to the way diglossia is sustained by speakers' valorizations...

Vietnamese

Vietnamese   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,195 words

...did he tell (about it)?’ ( Nó ba̓o tôi ‘He told me.’) (77) X làm gì? ‘What does X do?’ ( X làm báo ‘X is a journalist.’) (78) X ơ̓ đâu? ‘Where does X live?’ ( X ơ̓ Carbondale . ‘X lives in Carbondale.’) In tag questions, pha̓i không , which is the equivalent of French n'est-ce pas , is often reduced to phỏng : (79) Không ăn, phải không? > Không ăn phỏng? ‘(I take it,) you're not eating?’ Final particles mark nuances of interrogation. Thus a, à , and ư are used to express astonishment, or to seek confirmation of what is supposed or...

Philosophy of Language

Philosophy of Language   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
23,263 words

...x (∀ y ( Fy ↔ y = x ) & C ( x )’,    ‘ C (an F )’ means ‘∃ x ( Fx & C ( x )’ The left-hand sides of these analyses are to be understood as schematically representing a sentence containing a description. Thus, for a sentence such as (5), (5) The owner of Stella's Cafe is nice , we may apply Russell's analysis of definite descriptions by taking C ( x ) to be ‘( x ) is nice’. If we let O stand for the ownership relation and s stand for Stella's Cafe, the analysis then tells us that (5) is to be interpreted as meaning (6) ∃ x (∀ y ( Oys ↔ y = x )...

Learnability

Learnability   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,183 words

...Suppose that input is x k . How can any procedure tell at that point that the real answer might not be V * − x j for some j ≠ k ? If V * − x j were actually the target language, x k would eventually turn up in the input (because no grammatical strings are eternally missing from the input sequence, and x k is not the lone ungrammatical string here). If x k triggers the incorrect guess V *, there will be no way to recover and guess V * − x j , because all future data will be compatible with both V * and V * − x j . The data are all...

Sanskrit

Sanskrit   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,762 words
Illustration(s):
5

... ‘keeps on going’, bo-bhav-ī-ti ‘keeps on becoming’ (18) causative gam-aya-ti ‘X makes Y go’, bhāv-aya-ti ‘X makes Y be/become’ (19) desiderative ji-gam-i-ṣa-ti ‘X himself wants to go’, bu-bhū-ṣa-ti ‘X himself wants to be/become’ Each tense or mood had three persons, first, second, and third, and three numbers, singular, dual, and plural. Each tense or mood could also be conjugated in two voices, active and middle, with different terminations: (20) gacch-a-ti/gacch-a-te ‘goes’, bhav-a-ti/bhav-a-te ‘is/becomes’ There were a number of...

Syllables

Syllables   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,680 words
Illustration(s):
3

...(3) If segment x has greater sonority than y , then a parse in which x is a nucleus is, all other things being equal, preferred to a parse in which y is a nucleus. An instantiation of (3) involves a Berber string such as \sawl-x\, realized as [sa.wl′x] ‘I spoke’. An alternative parse [saw.lx′] is not excluded in principle, since Berber does allow syllabic fricatives in other contexts (e.g. tx′zn′t ‘store’). To express the preference for [sa.wl′x] over [saw.lx′], one must invoke (3), which favors a parse with [l′] over [x′]. Although [x′] is tolerated in...

Reduplication

Reduplication   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
720 words

...three positions tends to follow the ordering of synonymous affixes in the language. Semantically, reduplication typically results in added meaning. Recurrent meanings of reduplication include: (a) Plurality: Samoan mamate ‘they die’, mate ‘die’ (cf. Agta, above) (b) ‘Every X’: Pacoh damo damo ‘everyone’, damo ‘whichever’ (c) Distributive plural: Twi dú dú ‘ten each’, dú ‘ten’ (d) Indefinite pronoun: Sundanese sahasaha ‘whoever’, saha ‘who?’ (e) Repeated or continued occurrence of an event: Sundanese guguyon ‘jest repeatedly’, guyon ...

Wolof

Wolof   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,345 words
Illustration(s):
2

...linked to the grammaticalization of focus in the verb. Wolof is usually described as having 35 phonemes (20 consonants, 8 short and 7 long vowels), without counting geminate and prenasalized consonants (see Tables 1 and 2). Table 1. Vowel Phonemes of Wolof (Official Senegal Orthography) Table 2. Consonant Phonemes of Wolof (Official Senegal Orthography) Labial Dental (Alveolar) Palatal Velar Uvular Stops p t e k q b d j g Nasals m n ñ η Fricatives f s x Trills r Laterals l Semivowels y w In final position, stops have special realizations (implosive for...

Tone

Tone   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,843 words
Illustration(s):
6

...tone is lowered all the way to the preceding low. Liberman and Pierrehumbert 1984 have shown that, at least in English, register-lowering (which they refer to as “downstep”) lowers the high pitch register by a constant proportion each time; that is, (3) X i+1 − r = s ·( X i − r ) Here X i and X i+1 = the height of the high pitch register, in Hertz, before and after register-lowering; s = the register-lowering constant; and r = the reference line from which the high pitch register is measured. The nature of the phonological environment for...

Somali

Somali   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,584 words

...inventory of consonants directly, as shown in Table 1. Table 1. Somali Consonants . Phonetic values are given in brackets. Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal Occlusives  Voiceless t k q '[ˀ]  Voiced b d dh [ḍ] j g Fricatives  Voiceless f s sh [š] kh [x] x [ḥ] h  Voiced c [ʕ] Nasals m n Vibrant r Lateral l Semivowels w y The orthographic representation of vowels retains the phonemic distinction between long and short vowels, but collapses that between [+ advanced] and [− advanced] tongue root vowels, as shown in Table 2. Table 2. ...

Bulgarian

Bulgarian   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,615 words

...Table 1. Table 1. Bulgarian Consonant Phonemes Labial Dental Palatal Velar Stops  Voiceless   Plain p t k   Palatalized p' t' k'  Voiced   Plain b d g   Palatalized b' d' g' Affricates  Voiceless   Plain c č   Palatalized c'  Voiced (Plain) ǰ Fricatives  Voiceless   Plain f s š x   Palatalized f' s'  Voiced   Plain v z ž   Palatalized v' z' Nasals   Plain m n   Palatalized m' n' Vibrants   Plain r   Palatalized r' Laterals   Plain l   Palatalized l' Glide j Bulgarian is written in the Cyrillic alphabet in a form close to that used for Russian. The letter щ...

Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...who return do not like Quechua speakers to use Spanish loans. Quechua, Ayacucho: also called Runasimi, Chanka. 900,000 speakers in Peru, the southwestern Ayacucho region and Lima. Dialects are Andahuaylas, Huancavelica. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 31%, 1 20%, 2 20%, 3 20%, 4 8%, 5 1%. Perhaps 300,000 are monolingual, 600,00 can speak varying degrees of Spanish. Some families are switching to Spanish. Spoken in local administration, oral and written Ayacucho Quechua used in some schools and more than one university. Parents transmit Ayacucho...

Mathematical Linguistics

Mathematical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
12,904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Finite-state languages are formed by the operations of concatenation, union, and “Kleene closure.” The last operation is illustrated by the following example. Let x and y be strings over some vocabulary. Then ( x, y )* (“Kleene star of x and y ”) is the set of all strings of repetitions of x and y , including the null string; i.e., {∅, x, y, xx (= x 2 ), xy, yx, y 2 , x 3 ,…}. The class of finite-state languages over a fixed vocabulary is closed under union, intersection, complementation with the universal language, and concatenation. They...

Berber Languages

Berber Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,707 words
Illustration(s):
2

...long counterpart ṭṭ ) belong to the Proto-Berber consonant inventory. The other pharyngealized consonants are either borrowed from Arabic or result from secondary developments. Table 1. Phoneme Inventory of Tashelhiyt Short Consonants (after Galand 1988) f t s š k x ḥ b d z ž g Ɣ ʕ (ṭ) ṣ k w x w ḍ z̳ g w Ɣ w m n (w) (y) (h) r (ṛ) l Table 2. Phoneme Inventory of Tashelhiyt Long Consonants (after Galand 1988) Vowel systems (Table 3) differ greatly among the languages. The northern languages have three plain vowels plus a short central vowel, ə , whose...

Semantics

Semantics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
18,984 words
Illustration(s):
6

...itself), asymmetry (if X is taller than Y, necessarily Y is not taller than X), and transitivity (if X is taller than Y, and Y is taller than Z, then necessarily X is taller than Z). A word like Eng. equals , which has all three “positive” properties—reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity—is said to express an identity relation. Many words actually have none of these properties, for example, hate . It is not necessarily the case that one hates or does not hate oneself. Nor, if X hates Y, does it necessarily follow that Y hates X. Finally, hate is...

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