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Robert Kennedy

Robert Kennedy  

(1925–1968), attorney general of the United States, senator from New York.Born in Brookline, Massachusetts, third son of Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy and Joseph P. Kennedy, a wealthy businessman and ...
Black Panthers

Black Panthers  

The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (later simply the Black Panther Party) was born in Oakland, California, on 15 October 1966, and was a radical anti-oppression organization that became ...
African Americans

African Americans  

A citizen or resident of the United States whose ancestry can be traced to Africa. A term intended to avoid the pejorative associations of words such as “negro” and “black.” An estimated 10 to 12 ...
Diophantus of Alexandria

Diophantus of Alexandria (Diophantos; c. 200–284 CE)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,107 words

...must be greater than any one singly,” such as, x = a + b + c. Diophantus assumes: a + b = 20, b + c = 30, c + a = 40; he surmises x – 30, x – 40, x20. It follows from his assumptions that x = 3x – 90, so x = 45. Therefore a = 15, b = 5, c = 25. Barring Diophantus’s assumption, this problem has multiple solutions. Other problems involve rational numbers as the sums of squared or cubed numbers; values that simultaneously render two linear expressions into squares or cubes (e.g., for 10x + 9 and 5x + 4, x = 28. This yields 289 whose square root is 17 and...

Malcolm X

Malcolm X (b. 19 May 1925)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,037 words
Illustration(s):
2

...during the early 1990s, young African American men began wearing X-caps, and even U.S. President Bill Clinton was sometimes seen jogging in one. In 1992 the filmmaker Spike Lee directed Malcolm X , starring the Oscar-winning actor Denzel Washington as Malcolm. On 20 January 1999 , the U.S. Postal Service issued a Malcolm X postage stamp. [ See also Malcolm X, Memory of ; Muhammad, Elijah ; Nation of Islam ; and Shabazz, Betty .] Bibliography Breitman, George . The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary . New York: Merit, 1967. This...

Matchless Six

Matchless Six   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
203 words

...The leading Canadian female athlete of her day, Rosenfeld remains one of the finest all-round athletes of the 20th century. The Canadian contingent at the 1928 games was dubbed the Matchless Six. That squad, which included Rosenfeld, Jean Thomson , Myrtle Cook , Ethel Calderwood , Ethel Smith , and Jane Bell , won two gold medals, a silver, and a bronze. Calderwood won gold in the high jump, and Rosenfeld, Smith, Bell, and Cook took the 4 x 100-m relay. Rosenfeld and Smith won silver and bronze respectively in a disputed 100-m final. Rosenfeld...

ogam

ogam   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
199 words

...oldest form of script in Ireland and consists of an alphabet of originally 20, later 25, letters, which might be incised along the edge of a stone pillar. The signs are slashes, differentiated by their number, their length, and by which side (or both) they appeared on. There are over 300 ogam stones known in Ireland, primarily concentrated in Munster, and in areas colonized by the Irish such as Wales. The inscriptions, memorial markers with the name and descent of an individual of the ‘X son of Y’ type, are generally dated from about the 4th century to the 7th...

Lee, Spike

Lee, Spike (b. 20 March 1957)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
995 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ambitious biopic Malcolm X , also starring Washington. Warner Brothers offered him $20 million to produce the film, a figure far below Lee's estimated budget. He turned to black celebrities, including Bill Cosby , Michael Jordan , and Oprah Winfrey , as backers. Their investment paid off: the film ultimately grossed $48 million. Although audiences were enthusiastic, Lee received criticism from Amiri Baraka and some other black intellectuals who were concerned about the potential distortion and commercialization of Malcolm X's memory. Indeed, the release...

Hampton, Henry

Hampton, Henry (b. 8 January 1940)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
431 words

...for an Oscar for best documentary film. The series also received a DuPont-Columbia Gold Baton Award and is still considered required viewing in many American history classrooms. Hampton went on to produce other documentaries, including The Great Depression ( 1993 ), Malcolm X: Make It Plain ( 1994 ), and America's War on Poverty ( 1995 ), before succumbing to complications resulting from lung cancer at the age of fifty-eight. I'll Make Me a World ( 1999 ), a series on African Americans and the arts, was completed posthumously and aired on public...

ultramontanism

ultramontanism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
461 words

...le Parti, le Grand Homme , a pamphlet published in 1882 under the pseudonym Castor ( Senator F. X. A. Trudel and the priest Alphonse Villeneuve ), expressed their profound alienation. Although individual Castors would exert influence in forming the Parti national after Riel's hanging in 1885 and in the Manitoba schools question, the movement was already a spent force. Yet, its legacy of independent journalism and political action, represented in the 20th century by Henri Bourassa , would remain. Roberto...

medical treatments

medical treatments   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,056 words

...treatments . Therapeutic preoccupations reflect the major causes of death. Until the early 20th century the most important fatal diseases were fevers, including tuberculosis , pneumonia, post-partum fever, and diphtheria. By the mid-20th century heart disease and stroke were the leading causes of mortality; at the time of writing, their impact is slowly being overtaken by cancer. In keeping with humoral theories of disease, 19th-century fever therapy entailed bleeding, blisters, head shaving, foot warming, and strong drugs—mercury, antimony, emetics,...

International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books

International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
894 words

...of the Book Fairs over the following decade. In 1984 the festival brochure commemorated the coup against Maurice Bishop, President of Grenada, the previous October, in which he and his Cabinet were executed before the United States intervened. The 20th anniversary of the death of Malcolm X in 1985 , the 20th anniversary of the coup against Kwame Nkrumah in 1986 , the freeing of Nelson Mandela in 1989 , the tenth anniversary of the New Cross fire in 1991 , were all marked in programmes and keynote speeches. In 1989 the fatwa against Salman...

Amsterdam News

Amsterdam News   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
980 words

...movement. The News was a consistent supporter of Martin Luther King Jr.'s nonviolent program and of his leadership of the movement. That support, however, did not hinder the Amsterdam News from noting the black community's rising support for Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X. Savory died in 1965 , leaving Powell alone as publisher. In April 1971 , Powell sold his newspaper to a group consisting of the Manhattan Borough president Percy Sutton, the financier Clarence Jones , and Wilbert A. Tatum . The $5,000 investment had grown to $2.3 million....

Lewis, Carl

Lewis, Carl (b. 1 July 1961)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
755 words

...record as a world-class sprinter was equally impressive. He won Olympic gold medals in the 100- and 200-meter dashes in 1984 ; in the 100 meters in 1988 ; and as a member of the U.S. team in the 4 X 100 relay in both 1984 and 1992 . At the IAAF World Championships of 1983 , 1987 , and 1991 , he won six gold medals (three in the 100 meters and three in the 4 X 100 relay). His victory in the 100 meters at the 1988 Seoul Olympics also set a world record at 9.92 seconds (following the disqualification for steroid use of Canadian Ben Johnson , who had...

Owls

Owls   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
681 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Research, 14. Santa Fe, N.M., 1957. Tozzer, Alfred M. , and G. M. Allen . Animal Figures in the Maya Codices . Peabody Museum Papers, vol. 4, no. 3. Cambridge, Mass., 1910. von Winning, Hasso . “ The Teotihuacan Owl-and-Weapon Symbol and Its Association with ‘Serpent Head X’ at Kaminaljuyu. ” American Antiquity 14 (1948), 120–123. von Winning, Hasso . Two Maya Monuments in Yucatan: The Palace of the Stuccoes at Acanceh and the Temple of the Owls at Chichen Itzá . Southwest Museum, Frederick Webb Hodge Anniversary Publication Fund, 12. Los Angeles,...

Redman, Joshua

Redman, Joshua (b. 1 February 1969)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
572 words

...International Jazz Saxophone Competition, and he won the $10,000 prize for first place. After the win, record companies battled to sign Redman to a contract. He signed with Warner Brothers , and Joshua Redman ( 1993 ) was his debut album. Featured tunes were “Tribalism,” “Groove X,” a rendition of Monk's “Trinkle, Tinkle,” and a reinterpretation of James Brown's soul classic “I Got You.” Rather than intellectualism, the distinctive Joshua Redman sound injected emotion, sensuality, and soul into tradition-bound jazz tunes. His debut album sold thirty thousand...

Islam.

Islam.   Reference library

Stephen Prothero and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
654 words

...leaders, including Franklin Graham , son of the revivalist Billy Graham , and televangelist Jerry Falwell , made derogatory statements about Islam that deeply angered Muslims in the United States and throughout the world. See also African Americans ; Immigration Law ; Malcolm X ; Post–Cold War Era , Protestantism ; Roman Catholicism ; Slavery: The Slave Trade . C. Eric Lincoln , The Black Muslims in America , 3d ed., 1994. Jane I. Smith , Islam in America , 1999. Stephen Prothero ; Updated by Paul S....

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,374 words

...Steve Pope and Dotun Adebayo left The Voice newspaper in 1991 to establish X Press in 1992 , scoring an instant success with their first publication, Yardie by Victor Headley . Since then, they have achieved further success by selling broadcast rights for some of their popular titles, such as Baby Father . They diversified into other imprints, Black Classics, 20/20, and Nia, as the X Press name became synonymous with populism. Although much criticized for this, X Press remains a ground‐breaking imprint for new authors who would not traditionally...

Amanishaketo

Amanishaketo (fl. late first century BCE)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
866 words

...royal building activity of the queen is, moreover, attested not only by temple M 267, erected against the wall of the royal citadel in Meroe, but, most of all, by the palace that she built in Wadi ben Naga, along an important commercial route. This two-level square structure (61 x 61 meters) was excavated in 1960 . A cartouche of Kandake Amanishaketo was found there, as was a monumental columned entrance followed by a ground floor entirely occupied by narrow corridors and rectangular rooms that were used as magazines to store various products, including...

Aviation

Aviation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
802 words

...(ANA), operated by Kingsford Smith and Ulm , commenced a regular, unsubsidised Brisbane–Sydney service in January 1930 , and added Sydney–Melbourne in June. However, ANA failed in mid-1931, a victim of the Depression and a loss of public confidence due to the crash of its Avro X Southern Cloud . Commercially viable airlines developed in the mid-1930s. A new ANA, formed in 1936 by the merger of Holyman Airways and Adelaide Airways, operated from Hobart through Melbourne and Adelaide to Perth. R. M. Ansett began operating Hamilton–Melbourne services in ...

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