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scanning electron microscope

scanning electron microscope   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
119 words

...are then scanned to form a magnified image which allows the examination of the structure, relief, and morphology of materials at between 20 × and 50 000 × magnification. In addition to its great magnification, the SEM also has a great depth of field. Most SEMs also have a facility to analyse the X‐rays given off by the target as a result of its bombardment and, as each element in the periodic table produces its own X‐ray spectrum, this can be used to determine the elemental content of the...

Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
642 words

...solids analysis can be performed on discrete parts of the sample (less than 20 μm). A problem that remains to be addressed is the compatibility of results derived by ICPOES and ICP–MS with the huge NAA databank that already exists. Initial analyses suggest that the results obtained by ICPOES are compatible with those by NAA, but only a relatively small number of elements can be accurately determined by each method. [See also Analytical Techniques ; Neutron Activation Analysis ; and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis .] Bibliography Hart, F. A. , and S. J. Adams . “...

Qasile, Tell

Qasile, Tell   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,295 words
Illustration(s):
2

...XII). It continued to appear in large quantities in the following level (stratum XI) and to some extent also in the third level (stratum X). In stratum X, however, a local decorative style appeared, characterized by black paint on red slip, a degeneration of the original Philistine pottery. Strata XII–X represent the town's gradual development, with transitions unmarked by violent destruction. However, stratum X, the level in which the town reached the peak of its urban development and economic prosperity, came to a violent end, probably as a result of...

Microscopy

Microscopy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,191 words

...by evaporating a thin (10–20 nm) layer of metal or elementary carbon onto the specimen in the vacuum. Another important feature of the interaction of the electron beam with the sample is the excitation of X-rays characteristic of the chemical composition at the illuminated spot. Hence, it is possible to obtain information on the distribution of certain elements on the sample surface in addition to the topographical picture. However, such analyses can only be considered semiquantitative because of the variable self-absorption of the X-rays in the sample as a...

Hasa, Wadi El-

Hasa, Wadi El-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,457 words
Illustration(s):
1

...as well as Epipaleolithic Kebaran sites located on the northwest shore of Pleistocene Lake el-Hasa, with a C-14 date of 20,000 years bp from its Kebaran component, and a probable age for the sites at about 25,000–15,000 years bp ; WHS site 621 (2380.5 × 0286.5), a slightly later Middle Paleolithic ( tabun B–C-type Mousterian) open site located on the northwest shore of Lake el-Hasa, that is probably about 60,000 years old; WHS site 623X (2380.5 × 0288), a small (4 sq m) Upper Paleolithic Ahmarian open-air knapping station on the shore of Lake el-Hasa with...

Tyana

Tyana   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
817 words

...vol. 6. Wiesbaden, 1978. Geographical index of the cuneiform archives of Ḫattuša, giving all references. Hawkins, J. D. , and J. N. Postgate . “Tribute from Tabal.” Bulletin of the State Archives of Assyria 2.1 (1988). Hawkins, J. D. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions . [X.39–47 Tabal, Southern (Tyana) group.] Berlin and New York, forthcoming. Translations of all the hieroglyphic inscriptions of Tyana, with historical and philological commentary. Mellink, Machteld J. “ Archaeology in Asia Minor. ” American Journal of Archaeology 74 (1970): 157–178; 75...

Tepe Gawra

Tepe Gawra   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,943 words

...began. Speiser dug all of levels I–VIII. In the second season Charles Bache of the University of Pennsylvania Museum, who would direct the third–fifth and seventh seasons, joined the crew. Speiser returned to direct the sixth season. Levels I–X were completely excavated. As the area of the mound increased below level X, the percentage of the area excavated declined. From levels XI/XA–XII about 50 percent of the mound's surface was exposed, from levels XIIA–XX less than 30 percent. The sample size of all Halaf and Ubaid period levels was considerably smaller...

Arad

Arad   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,041 words
Illustration(s):
3

...belong to the early shrine. In front of the sanctuary was a rectangular courtyard (12.00 × 7.50 m) with a stone pavement. Rooms flanked the courtyard on its other three sides, and a large sacrificial altar was found on the east. The altar (2.40 × 2.20 m) was raised approximately 1.50 m above the floor of stratum X. It was built from unhewn fieldstones laid in mud mortar. A stone step, or bench, had been placed at the foot of its southern side. A large flint flagstone, girdled by plastered channels, covered the top of the altar, and a small compartment was...

Arad Inscriptions

Arad Inscriptions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,468 words

...Age II and are written in Paleo-Hebrew. Those found in stratified contexts are said to come from strata VI–XI ( c. 600 bce –tenth century bce ). Inscriptions from earlier strata (XI–X) are rare and almost illegible; in addition, the stratigraphy of Iron Age II Arad is disputed. The final publication has not yet appeared, and the proposed dating, particularly for the earlier inscriptions, should be considered tentative. In any case, various groups of inscriptions can be discerned based on their date and content: 1. Elyashib archives . Ostraca 1–18 are...

Alalakh

Alalakh   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,217 words

...Palestine, and the Aegean. Middle Bronze IIA (levels XVII–X). The type index of levels XVII–X is “ ῾Amuq-Cilician” ware, with its characteristic trefoil-mouthed jugs, carinated bowls, and high-footed vessels decorated with a painted triglyph-metope frieze containing geometric, plant, and animal motifs. Dated parallels from northern Syria, Cilicia, and Anatolia range within the MB IIA period. From level XII comes a solitary “red-cross bowl,” whose far-flung analogs date to the EB III period. Level X saw the introduction of Khabur Ware and gray burnished Ware,...

House

House   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
21,033 words
Illustration(s):
14

...Rooms (sq m) Chalcolithic : Meṣar (3.a solid ) 35 10 EB I : Yiftaḥel (2.a) 34.1 =5.75 (n=2) EB I : Jawa (2.b) =22.2 (n=5) =51.1 (n=5) EB II : Meṣar (3.a open ) 22.4 13 EB II : Arad (3.c) =19 (n=8) =6.2 (n=8) Syrian EB : Chuera A (3.b) 19.6 =4.2 (n=4) EB III : Tell el-Far῾ah (North) and Tel Yarmut (3.e) =16.5 3.78 (Yarmut, n=1) EB II : Nabi Salah (2.c) =14.1 (n=5) =7.1 (n=14) EB II–III : Gunna 25 100 (2.d) =10 (n=11) =1.4 (n=3) Syrian EB : Chuera B (3.d) — =6.7 (n=11) MB I : Be'er Resisim (2.e) 9.4 to 12.6 — Round Houses and Rectilinear...

῾Aqaba

῾Aqaba   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,987 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Nabatea as the Roman province of Arabia In 106 ce . Aila then became the southern terminus of the Via Nova Trajana, a major trunk road between southern Syria and the Red Sea completed In 111–114 ce . The strategic importance of the city is suggested by the transfer of the Legio X Fretensis from Jerusalem to Aila in about 300 ce (Eusebius, Onomasticon 6.17). A fragmentary monumental Latin building inscription of the early fourth century may relate to this legion, which remained garrisoned until at least the turn of the fifth century ( Notitia Dignitatum...

Hajar Bin Ḥumeid

Hajar Bin Ḥumeid   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,039 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a technique borrowed from paleontology enabled Thomas R. Soderstrom ( 1969 ), Elizabeth F. Wiseman , and Van Beek to identify both wild and domestic plants from seed impressions in plant-tempered pottery. Hajar Bin Ḥumeid was the site of the first successful use of X-rays to identify joints in pots assembled from multiple sections. With subsequent technological development, the technique become standard procedure. [ See also Qataban; and the biographies of Albright and Phillips .] Bibliography Bowen, Richard Le Baron . “Irrigation in Ancient...

Hazor

Hazor   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,119 words
Illustration(s):
3

...votive objects, the most important of which is a bronze figurine of a seated male deity. Yadin believed that the remnants of strata XII–XI belonged to an Israelite settlement in the twelfth–eleventh centuries bce . Iron Age II–III (strata X–IV). Stratigraphically, the following phases were established in the Iron II–III: X (Solomonic), with minor changes in IX, ending in a destruction attributed to the Aramean king Ben-Hadad I ; VIII, with minor changes in VII (Omride dynasty), ending in a destruction attributed to the Aramean king Hazael ; VI, destroyed by...

Nippur

Nippur   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,596 words
Illustration(s):
2

...area TA sounding (20 × 40 m) was located roughly in the center of the mound. Area TB was located approximately 30 m northeast of area TA at the bottom of a large cut made by the Pennsylvania expedition. The remains uncovered in areas TA and TB span a period of nearly two thousand years, from the time of the dynasty of Akkad through the Achaemenid era. Private houses were uncovered in both areas. The character of the excavated remains in area TB, however, changed over time. The buildings uncovered in the earliest, or lowest, levels (XIII–X) were probably...

Kuntillet ῾Ajrud

Kuntillet ῾Ajrud   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,714 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with pictures are four repetitions of the alphabet, a list of personal names, and two blessings that resemble the priestly benediction. One of these was written above two figures of the Egyptian god Bes and may be reconstructed as follows: “A[shy]o m[lk] (the king) said: tell [x, y, and z], may you be blessed by YHWH of Shomron (Samaria) and his Asherah.” If this reconstruction is sound, it is possible that ' (sy)w (hm)lk (“Ashyo the king”) is a transposition of the name yw'š , “Joash,” referring to the king (hmlk) of Israel who reigned from Samaria (...

Lahav

Lahav   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,564 words

...lay unoccupied until just before 1500 bce . The stratum XI resettlement, in the late Bronze IA period follows closely on the mid-sixteenth-century destruction of city D at nearby Tell Beit Mirsim. In field I at Ḥalif, four LB phases were identified (strata XI–VIII). In strata X and IX, during LB IB and IIA, the presence of a large Egyptian style “residency” building and its associated remains indicates that the settlement was a trading station along the route into the southern Judean hills. With stratum VIII (LB IIB) all of the field I architecture was...

Sa῾idiyeh, Tell Es-

Sa῾idiyeh, Tell Es-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,455 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the smaller room to the rear. This rear room, or sanctuary, had a plastered bench against the back wall, incorporating an inset niche; a burnt area with an incense stand and a pile of gazelle bones was found in front of the niche. Little can be said of the next three phases (strata X-VIII). Again, they appear to represent restricted and poor settlements which, in the area examined, consisted of roughly paved, cobbled courtyards with traces of flimsily built mudbrick walls. The next important period in the site's history appears with stratum VII (late ninth–early...

Miqne, Tel

Miqne, Tel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,835 words
Illustration(s):
3

...The Philistines and Their Material Culture . New Haven, 1982. See pages 17–18, 20, 57, 88, 296. Dothan, Trude. “The Arrival of the Sea Peoples: Cultural Diversity in Early Iron Age Canaan.” In Recent Excavations in Israel: Studies in Iron Age Archaeology , edited by Seymour Gitin and William G. Dever , pp. 1–14. Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 49. Winona Lake, Ind., 1989. Dothan, Trude. “ Iron Knives in Cult Areas at Ekron ” (in Hebrew). Eretz- Israel 20 (1989): 154–163. Dothan, Trude . “Ekron of the Philistines, Part I: Where They...

Shechem

Shechem   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,116 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Seger, Joe D. “Shechem Field XIII, 1969.” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research , no. 205 (1972): 20–35. Seger, Joe D. “ The Middle Bronze IIC Date of the East Gate at Shechem. ” Levant 6 (1974): 117–130. Seger, Joe D. “ The MB II Fortifications at Shechem and Gezer: A Hyksos Retrospective. ” Eretz-Israel 12 (1975): 34–45. Sellin, Ernst , and Hans Steckeweh . “ Sichem. ” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 64 (1941): 1–20. Toombs, Lawrence E. , and G. Ernest Wright . “The Third Campaign at Balaṭah (Shechem).” Bulletin of the American...

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