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Battlefield Archaeology

Battlefield Archaeology   Reference library

Douglas D. Scott

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,485 words

...Battlefield Archaeology from the Roman Empire to the Korean War, Vol. I , edited by Douglas Scott , Lawrence Babits and, Charles Haecker , pp. 50–57, 2007. Rubio, Campillo X. “An Archaeological Study of Talamanca Battlefield.” In Bastions and Barbed Wire: Studies in the Archaeology of Conflict , edited by T. Pollard and I. Banks , pp. 23–38, 2008. Rubio, Campillo X. “Modelitzaciói simulació aplicades al la recerca i interpretració de camps de batalla.” Ph.D. dissertation. Didàctica del les Ciències Socials, Barcelona, 2009. Schofield, John ....

Valley of the Kings

Valley of the Kings   Reference library

Aidan Dodson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,688 words

...Amenmesse 47 Siptah 14 Tawosret, usurped by Sethnakhte 13 Bay (Chancellor) Twentieth Dynasty 11 Rameses III 3 Son of Rameses III 2 Rameses IV 9 Rameses V, finished for Rameses VI 1 Rameses VII 6 Rameses IX 19 Montjuhirkopshef (son of Rameses IX) 18 Rameses X 4 Rameses XI The first tomb certainly known to have been cut in the valley was for Thutmose I of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Like all the royal sepulchers of that dynasty, it was cut in an inconspicuous location, and was covered after the burial. The tomb is uneven in form: later tombs...

Trade, Prehistoric

Trade, Prehistoric   Reference library

Robin Torrence, Mark Edmonds, Robin Torrence, and Andrew Sherratt

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
4,670 words

...emission spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence, proton-induced X-ray emission combined with proton-induced gamma ray emission, and fission track analysis. Although exploited for tools by human ancestors in eastern Africa during the Early Stone Age as much as a million years ago, obsidian was first transported over significant distances in the Middle Stone Age. The earliest evidence for substantial marine movement of obsidian occurred in Japan and Papua New Guinea around 20,000 years ago. The material from Matenbec Cave in New...

Excavation

Excavation   Reference library

William S. Dancey, William S. Dancey, E. B. Banning, Thomas F. King, Thomas R. Hester, and Thomas F. King

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
5,683 words

...century, most archaeologists were content to record that an artifact came from a particular structure, or from a particular 16 by 16 feet (5 by 5 m) square. Today, archaeologists record provenience more precisely, sometimes mapping individual artifacts in place or providing the x, y, and z coordinates of each to the nearest centimeter, relative to permanent “datum” or benchmark. In other cases, they still use grids, but at a much smaller scale. Mapping is an important way to record spatial context. Archaeologists use equipment ranging from simple measuring tapes...

Near East

Near East   Reference library

Neil Asher Silberman, Thomas E. Levy, Ianir Milevski, Bonnie L. Wisthoff, David Ilan, Assaf Yasur-Landau, and John L. Meloy

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
12,726 words

...built in a later date during the Iron Age. The elaborate water systems used during the Bronze and Iron ages in Jerusalem culminated in the late eighth century with the cutting of the Siloam Tunnel by King Hezekiah in anticipation of a coming Assyrian invasion in 701 BC (2 Kings 20:20; 2 Chronicles 32:1–4, 30). This 1,755-foot (535-m)-long tunnel leads from the Gihon Spring at the east of the city to the Pool of Siloam in the southwest part of the city. An eighth-century inscription found engraved on the roof of the tunnel recounts the means by which it was...

Rock Art

Rock Art   Reference library

Paul G. Bahn, Christopher Chippindale, Paul G. Bahn, Jarl Nordbladh, Johan Ling, Polly Schaafsma, and David Frankel

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
8,078 words

...blending human and animal forms with plants. After about 9,000 years ago, as estuarine conditions developed, fish became the main motif. These are painted in a new, simple “X-ray” style, where internal anatomical parts are shown. With the development of freshwater swamps, species such as magpie geese become important in the environment, subsistence, and art. More elaborate forms of X-ray art developed, with a wider array of motifs, including new types of artifacts such as the didjeridoo (drone pipe) and the more recent depictions of Europeans and their...

South America

South America   Reference library

Charlotte Beck, Charles Stanish, Tom D. Dillehay, Thomas Pozorski, Shelia Pozorski, Anna Roosevelt, José Proenza Brochado, Francisco S. Noelli, James A. Zeidler, Theresa Lange Topic, Mary Van Buren, and Andrés Zarankin

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,578 words

...Tarble . “The Roles of Material Culture in the Colonization of the Orinoco, Venezuela.” Journal of Social Archaeology 5 (2005): 135–168. Schaedel, Richard . “The Archaeology of the Spanish Colonial Experience in South America.” Antiquity 66 (1992): 217–242. Senatore, Maria X. “Enlightened Discourse, Representations and Social Practices in the Spanish Settlement of Floridablanca (Patagonia, 18th Century).” In Archaeological Global Theory , edited by P. Funari , A. Zarankin , and E. Stovel , pp. 265–281, 2005. Zarankin, Andres , and Melisa...

Roman Empire

Roman Empire   Reference library

Colin M. Wells, R. J. A. Wilson, David H. French, A. Trevor Hodge, Stephen L. Dyson, and David F. Graf

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
12,461 words

...Agrippa I ( ad 40 to 44), Judaea was again placed under direct Roman rule. A national uprising against Roman rule (known as the First Jewish Revolt, ad 66 to 70) resulted in widespread destruction. After the First Revolt, Jerusalem became the headquarter’s for the legio X Fretensis , and, with the destruction of the Temple in AD 70, the Jews’ national religious center was shifted to Jamnia and eventually Galilee. After a second revolt against Roman rule led by Bar-Kokhba ( ad 132 to 135), the emperor Hadrian “re-founded” Jerusalem as Colonia Aelia...

scanning electron microscope

scanning electron microscope   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
119 words

...are then scanned to form a magnified image which allows the examination of the structure, relief, and morphology of materials at between 20 × and 50 000 × magnification. In addition to its great magnification, the SEM also has a great depth of field. Most SEMs also have a facility to analyse the X‐rays given off by the target as a result of its bombardment and, as each element in the periodic table produces its own X‐ray spectrum, this can be used to determine the elemental content of the...

Arad

Arad   Reference library

Zeאev Herzog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...symbolizing the presence of the deity in the temple. Two carefully hewn limestone incense altars were found lying on their sides on the middle stair of stratum X, below the floor of stratum IX of the main hall. The altars differ in size: the base of the smaller is 8.7 by 7.9 inches (22 by 20 cm) and it is 15.7 inches (40 cm) high, while the larger is 12.2 by 11.4 inches (31 by 29 cm) at base and 20 inches (51 cm) high. Both altars had a top part separated from the base by a groove. A shallow depression was cut in the top surface, with remnants of organic...

Ashdod

Ashdod   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,957 words
Illustration(s):
2

...that went out of use in stratum XIa. Iron II city walls were revealed in Ashdod both in Area G, stratum X, and in Area M, strata X–VII. Important finds from stratum XI include a large assemblage of richly decorated Philistine bichrome pottery, a complete Aegean-style seated female figurine (Dothan, 1971 , fig. 91:1, nicknamed “Ashdoda”), a complete pomegranate-shaped vessel, and several seals carved in a linear style recalling Cypriot seals. Stratum X marks a clear break in the material culture of Tel Ashdod as red-slipped pottery almost totally replaces...

Aelia Capitolina

Aelia Capitolina   Reference library

Robert Schick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,342 words
Illustration(s):
1

...not an arch, is attested by a portion of a monumental Latin inscription that records the Legio X Fretensis, II Traiana, and XII Fulminata. Jerome ( Chron. 2:201 ) reported that in his day in the late fourth century the picture of a boar, the emblem of the Legio X Fretensis, was placed over the city gate leading to Bethlehem. That indicates that the gate, whether as a freestanding monumental arch or as a city gate, was constructed before the transfer of the Legio X Fretensis to Aqaba in the course of Diocletian’s (r. 284–305 c.e. ) army reforms. One might...

Ekron

Ekron   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,508 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a jar filled with charred figs, ended in a violent destruction. The Late Bronze Age is not represented in the lower city, indicating that during this period Ekron was relatively small and unfortified. Strata VII to IV represent the Iron I in fields I, III, IV, and X. Remains in fields X and III in the lower city indicate a fortification wall during the Iron Age I and highlight Ekron’s large size during this period of time. A fragment of a gate was also excavated in field III strata V and IV (Iron Age IB). Remains of early Iron-I structures, including...

Fortifications in the Bronze and Iron Age

Fortifications in the Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Kyle H. Keimer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,828 words

...the attacking army had sufficient provisions). Even more diverse than the style of wall in the Iron II is the style of gate, which ranged from a simple breach in the wall (Mezudat Hatira) to structures with two (Beit Mirsim B3), four (Khirbet Qeiyafa, Ashdod X, Beersheba V), or six (Hazor X, Megiddo VA–IVB, Gezer VIII) chambers to grandiose complexes with inner and outer gates (Dan III, Bethsaida V). At the same time, some sites did not even have a proper gate but were apparently entered via ladder (Kadesh Barnea III, Horbat Rosh Zayit IIa). City gates...

Timnah, Tel Batash

Timnah, Tel Batash   Reference library

Amihai Mazar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,576 words

...following occupation phase (stratum X) the citadel went out of use. On the basis of pottery typology, the end of this Middle-Bronze city was in the mid-sixteenth century b.c.e. At the same time the large Middle-Bronze city at nearby Tel Miqne came to an end and the fortified Middle-Bronze city at Gezer was destroyed. The circumstances of this crisis and its reasons are unclear; they may have occurred in the aftermath of the events related to the expulsion of the Hyksos dynasty from Egypt. Late Bronze Age I–IIA. Strata X–VI dated to the Late Bronze Age are...

Hazor

Hazor   Reference library

Sharon Zuckerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,538 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Research 314 (1999): 55–70. Finkelstein, Israel . “Hazor XII–XI with an Addendum on Ben-Tor’s Dating of Hazor X­–VII.” Tel-Aviv 27 (2000): 231–247. Horowitz, Wayne , and Oshima Takayoshi . Cuneiform in Canaan: Cuneiform Sources from the Land of Israel in Ancient Times . Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2006. Kitchen, Kenneth A. “An Egyptian Inscribed Fragment from Late Bronze Hazor.” Israel Exploration Journal 53 (2003): 20–28. Marom, Nimrod , and Sharon Zuckerman . “Applying On-Site Analysis of Faunal Assemblages from Domestic Contexts: A...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Jürgen Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,329 words
Illustration(s):
2

...who tried to save their lives and protect their goods as long as possible under the leadership of El ʿ azar ben-Yacir and Shimcon bar-Giora (Josephus, B.J. 2.653). The Roman Garrison between 73/74 and 111 c.e. In 73 c.e. , however, the Roman governor Flavius Silva led Legio X Fretensis and numerous auxiliaries, a force of up to 13,000 men, from Jerusalem to Masada with the clear order to wipe out the last rebel stronghold. Excavations on the fortress itself by Yadin, in Camp F, and on the siege works have revealed a stunning array of Roman military...

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,575 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Ant. 15.423). But the project was so huge that much work dragged on until 28 c.e. ( John 2:20 ), and it was not before 64 c.e. that the Roman governor Albinus declared the Temple finished and ordered construction to stop, creating a major social crisis (Josephus, Ant. 20.219). Herod Agrippa II (r. 48–ca. 93 c.e. ) had to repair and embellish the streets of Jerusalem to keep 18,000 workers active who were previously employed at the Temple (Josephus, Ant. 20.220–221). Numismatic finds and the almost perfect state of many pavers on the south–north road...

Dan

Dan   Reference library

David Ilan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,469 words
Illustration(s):
2

...houses built on inner rampart, tombs under houses, scarab seals X Middle Bronze II 17th century b.c.e. “Cenotaph” tomb XI Middle Bronze II 18th century b.c.e. Mud-brick gate house with three intact arches, earthen rampart, monochrome painted crème ware pottery XII Middle Bronze I 20th–18th centuries b.c.e. Simple dwellings, wheel-made pottery including Levantine painted ware, infant and adult burials and tombs under houses, first bronze objects XIII Intermediate Bronze 23d–20th centuries b.c.e. Sparse settlement remains, pottery XIV Early Bronze...

Gath

Gath   Reference library

Aren Maeir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,993 words
Illustration(s):
1

...A3 destruction level, remains of an early Iron Age–IIA building which apparently served as a temple were revealed. This included two well-made round stone pillar bases and a related rectangular structure, quite reminiscent of the plan of the Philistine temple at Tel Qasile, stratum X. Although the finds from this structure were not well preserved, various cult-related finds were discovered in association with this structure. Just to the north of the northern wall of the temple, remains of a small area in which evidence of bronze and iron metallurgical production...

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