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Overview

World Economy

The concept of the world economy is best approached by distinguishing it from some terms that are often used interchangeably, namely, “international economy” and “global economy.” The ...

World Economy

World Economy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,484 words

... Economy . The concept of the world economy is best approached by distinguishing it from some terms that are often used interchangeably, namely, “international economy” and “global economy.” The international economy refers to the economic activity that takes place between nations. The notion of global economy encompasses all economic activity on the planet, without reference to nations. The term “globalization,” then, is the process in which all economic activity is increasingly integrated into one global economy. The world economy as a concept is more than...

world trade and world economy

world trade and world economy   Reference library

Richard Overy

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

... trade and world economy . The Second World War was an economic as well as a military conflict. The war effort made enormous demands on the economic resources of all the combatant powers, and the Axis states were finally worn down by the sheer material strength of the Grand Alliance they faced. The war also altered the international economy, bringing to an end the period of stagnation and protectionism of the 1930s; creating the circumstances for greater economic co-operation under the guidance of the USA; and, after 1945 , launching the world economy on...

Economy, American, since World War II

Economy, American, since World War II   Reference library

Grahame Thompson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,185 words

...of economic activity, followed by contraction. Because the US economy has been of such importance to the health of the international economy (or “global economy,” as it is now characterized)—having been by far the largest single economy in the world from 1945 up through at least the mid- 2000 s—the business cycle as manifest in the United States has tended to have significant spillover effects into other economies. So, again as popularly presented, if the US economy “sneezed,” the world economy tended to “catch a cold.” However, there is another important...

Economy, American, since World War II

Economy, American, since World War II   Reference library

Grahame Thompson

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,144 words

...of economic activity, followed by contraction. Because the US economy has been of such importance to the health of the international economy (or “global economy,” as it is now characterized)—having been by far the largest single economy in the world from 1945 up through at least the mid-2000s—the business cycle as manifest in the US has tended to have significant spillover effects into other economies. So, again as popularly presented, if the US economy “sneezed,” the world economy tended to “catch a cold.” However, there is another important element...

World Economy

World Economy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The concept of the world economy is best approached by distinguishing it from some terms that are often used interchangeably, namely, “international economy” and “global economy.” The international ...
world trade and world economy

world trade and world economy  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The Second World War was an economic as well as a military conflict. The war effort made enormous demands on the economic resources of all the combatant powers, and the ...
Hunter-Gatherer Economies in the Old World and New World

Hunter-Gatherer Economies in the Old World and New World   Reference library

Christopher Morgan, Shannon Tushingham, Raven Garvey, Loukas Barton, and Robert L. Bettinger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Agriculture and the Environment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
Length:
15,951 words
Illustration(s):
3

...not only their respective economies, but also their technologies, population densities, and degrees and types of sociocultural complexity. While it is clear that the vast and unprecedented numbers of people currently living in the complex, interconnected, and global modern world could not be supported without reliance on domesticated plants and animals, what is much less clear is how hunting and gathering gave rise to agricultural economies and the degree to which hunting and gathering differs in either kind or quantity from economies relying mainly on...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by the nation that could both afford and expect to gain most from the opening of markets and the extension to the world at large of the gains from the division of labour. For this very reason, the proposition was later to be subjected to a different interpretation by latecomers to the business of applying machinery to manufacture. It was to become the mark of ‘perfidious Albion’, a conclusion of the despised English ‘cosmopolitical economy’, as the German liberal Friedrich List ( 1789–1846 ) called it, that had laid the foundation for what was later to be...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...1700–1920: Essays for Gordon Mingay (1991) , Richard Perren , The Meat Trade in Britain, 1840–1914 (1978) , M. E. Turner , ‘Rural Economies in Post‐Famine Ireland, c .1850–1914’, in B. J. Graham and L. J. Proudfoot (eds), An Historical Geography of Ireland (1993) , Frank Mitchell and Michael Ryan , Reading the Irish Landscape (rev. edn, 1997) , P. E. Dewey , British Agriculture in the First World War (1989) and ‘Iron Harvests of the Field’: The Making of Farm Machinery in Britain since 1800 (2008) , E. H. Whetham (ed.), The...

Industrial History

Industrial History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,499 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... (2 vols, 1724–6 ), is a lively and well‐informed account of local economies in the early 18th century. There is a vast literature on the industries of the 18th and 19th centuries and numerous local and regional studies ( see chemical industry ; coal ; cotton ; factory ; glass ; iron ; lead ; pottery ; quarrying ; steam engines ; steel ; tin ; water power ; wool ; worsted ). The leading role of cotton in the development of Britain as the first industrial nation in the world has long been recognized. The factory‐based cotton industry that led...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of change in the most advanced sectors of the economy towards a broader and more balanced assessment of society as a whole. While many recent studies of British society follow a conventional chronology by beginning the modern era in the latter half of the eighteenth century, most now accept that the eighteenth century witnessed only the start of processes which were to take much of the next century to spread to the economy and to society at large. Modern work on economic growth, however, would describe an economy growing only gradually until the 1820s, with...

Family and Society

Family and Society   Quick reference

Ralph Houlbrooke

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,144 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of their children than ever before. The Agricultural and Industrial revolutions (See industrial history) took much production out of the home and reduced the importance of the small‐scale family enterprise in the national economy. The growth of the factory , the large commercial farm, and bigger distributional enterprises separated the worlds of home and ‘gainful’ employment for an increasing proportion of the population. The lives of women were profoundly affected by this change. During the phase of proto‐industrialization domestic industry expanded rapidly,...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...book trade in Austria was relatively underdeveloped. Austrian readers were principally supplied by booksellers from southern Germany, especially Augsburg. In the early modern period, Austria experienced a series of crises. The economy (especially mining) was affected by the geo-strategic shift resulting from the discovery of the New World. Vienna and Graz were besieged by the Turks in 1529 and 1532 respectively, and the Turkish wars flared up again in 1593 . Vienna was besieged once more in 1683 . From the 1520s there was social unrest among the...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes—and in 1945–51 book production reached 1,750 titles. Bosnian companies did fairly well as part of the publishing industry of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, but the 1992–5 war had a devastating effect not only on the local economy, but on the area’s cultural heritage, as the National and University Library of *Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo was destroyed. 8 Croatia The earliest works written on Croatian territory were in Glagolitic script. In their union with Hungary, the Croats were mainly...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...century. An early attempt to calculate population totals was John Graunt , Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality ( 1662 ). Sir William Petty , Political Arithmetick ( 1690 ) stressed the value of comparative statistics in a discussion of political economy. The outstanding work of this period was Gregory King , Natural and Political Observations and Conclusions upon the State and Condition of England ( 1696 ), which used the hearth tax and poll tax returns of the previous decades to estimate population levels and analyse...

Consumerism

Consumerism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
3,809 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thus be argued that the concept of ‘consumerism’ is useful, because pioneering manufacturers had a vision of a socio-economic system in which surging domestic consumption would turn the wheels. But the notion of ‘consumerism’ requires further elucidation. Traditional *political economy [33] took ‘demand’ itself for granted; it was an unexamined assumption that unlimited ‘demand’ was always present, checked only by want of money in consumers' pockets or by production bottlenecks. Once these hindrances had been removed, ‘demand’ would automatically take off like...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...like their precursors, the numbers jumped by 1817 to an average of 12,000–14,000 for the quarterlies and Blackwood's . If the Edinburgh Review systematically translated commerce into ‘political economy’, Blackwood's , the New Monthly Magazine ( 1814 ), and the London Magazine ( 1820 ) cast their lot with a more concretely arriviste cultural economy to which they were giving tangible form. Writers for the New Monthly were especially fascinated by the ‘mercantile phraseology’ of *advertisements and other historic signposts of a fashion-driven ...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sheep and corn country of Wiltshire was thought to benefit from a comparison with the similar farming economy of, say, the Yorkshire Wolds . Moreover, the approach was not confined to studies of farming practices: each pays was thought of as having its distinctive characteristics in terms of manorial structure, settlement patterns, crafts, forms of religious observance, numbers of poor people, and so on. It had become clear that each type of agrarian economy had its rationale and that pastoral communities were as worthy of study as were arable open‐field...

African‐Caribbean Genealogy

African‐Caribbean Genealogy   Quick reference

Guy Grannum

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,002 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...significant numbers of West Indians started arriving in the UK. Britain needed labour to reconstruct its economy and services after the war and encouraged workers from Europe and the Caribbean. West Indians were brought up to consider Britain as the ‘mother country’, they were British citizens, and many had lived and worked in Britain during the war. Britain, however, was not a traditional country for West Indians to migrate to. Before the Second World War most migration was to the United States, Canada, and other countries in the Caribbean. After the war the...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., with Scotland's industrial economy finally taking its rightful place as a subject of study. The bias of Scottish historiography towards agrarian issues was remarked upon in 1983 , when G. Whittington and I. D. White in An Historical Geography of Scotland could note ‘too unbalanced an involvement with agrarian and rural settlement features to the exclusion of most other topics … Industry, population and urbanism are topics still too little regarded’—this, in a country which became the second most urbanized in the world around 1850 . Regional economic...

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