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Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn

Subject: Religion

Fragments of one manuscript of Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn (in Cryptic A Script; 4Q298) have been preserved in Cave 4 at Qumran. [See Cryptic Scripts.] ...

Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn

Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of the instructions of thesage” ( maskil ). Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn (4Q298 3–4.ii.3–8) contains formulas known from the Rule of the Community from Cave 1 at Qumran (e.g., 1QS v.4–5). The contents of the Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn are too poorly preserved to be discussed. Its major significance lies in the use of the cryptic script and in its being a specimen of the instruction of the sage to novices; the affinity to other works from Qumran may indicate that these works as well might be products of the teachings of the sage....

Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn

Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Fragments of one manuscript of Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn (in Cryptic A Script; 4Q298) have been preserved in Cave 4 at Qumran. [See Cryptic Scripts.] ...
Sons of Dawn

Sons of Dawn  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The term benei shaḥar (“Sons of Dawn”) occurs in the title of 4Q298 (Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn) and perhaps in one other passage in the ...
Sons of Dawn

Sons of Dawn   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... of Dawn . The term benei shaḥar (“Sons of Dawn”) occurs in the title of 4Q298 (Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn) and perhaps in one other passage in the Damascus Document (CD xiii.14). The use of the term in Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn should be understood in light of the content of the message that follows. Since this composition appears to be an introductory address, it is probable that the Sage is speaking to novices and that the term “Sons of Dawn” implies that these individuals are “dawning” out of the darkness into the light, and are...

Wiesel, Eliezer

Wiesel, Eliezer (1928–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,018 words

...of all people to confront hatred, racism, and genocide, wherever expressed. In this connection he has boldly, lucidly, and eloquently taken up the cause of the Kurds in Turkey and Iraq, the victims of South African apartheid, the Miskito Indians of Nicaragua, Cambodian refugees, Soviet Jews, and support of the state of Israel. BIBLIOGRAPHY Dawn (New York, 1961). Night (New York, 1961). The Accident (New York, 1962). The Town Beyond the Wall (New York, 1964). The Gates of the Forest (New York, 1966). Jews of Silence (New York, 1966). Legends of Our...

Secrecy

Secrecy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to discuss these “hidden things” or other insights with Jews who were not members of the community (1QS v.10–16, ix.16–17). Discussions are to be only with “the chosen of the Way” (1QS ix.17–18). One of the attributes ofthe Sons of Truth” is that they conceal “the truth of the mysteries of knowledge” (1QS iv.6). At Qumran sometimes scribes wrote in code to hide secrets from the uninitiated, for example, in Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn (in Cryptic A Script; 4Q298). The master is to instruct only the Sons of Light “in the mysteries of wonder...

Mishnah

Mishnah   Reference library

Ishay Rosen-Zvi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
9,653 words

...came to be considered a faithful representation of the Oral Law, rather than a mere collection of customs and traditions. The unique characteristics of the Mishnah can be exemplified by looking at its very first unit, tractate Berakot 1:1: From what time in the evening may the Shema ʿ be recited? From the time when the priests enter [the Temple] to eat of their heave-offering until the end of the first watch. So R. Eliezer. But the Sages say: Until midnight. Rabban Gamaliel says: Until the rise of dawn. His sons once returned [after midnight] from a...

Sapiential Work

Sapiential Work   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...feminine singular forms, though the content of the advice to her reflects the patriarchal assumptions of the text as a whole. As a wisdom instruction, Sapiential Work A belongs with other such texts found at Qumran (Sapiential Work 4Q185, Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn [in Cryptic A Script] 4Q298, Mysteries a–c 4Q299–301, Sapiential Work 4Q424, and Wisdom Text with Beatitudes 4Q525). There also may be some connections with the other (extremely fragmentary) manuscripts classified as sapiential on the basis of their vocabulary (Sapiential Work F...

Community Organization

Community Organization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...(1QS vi.2–3). All members of the community were predestined to be “the Sons of Light” in contrast tothe Sons of Darkness,” who were all those who were not members of their sect, even (and especially during the first phase of the community's existence) the ruling priests in Jerusalem. It took at least two years to become a member of the community; during this probationary period the novices, “the Sons of the Dawn” (Words of the Sage to the Sons of Dawn 4Q298), were instructed by a maskil (“master”) and eventually examined by the “examiner” ( mevaqqer )...

Revelation

Revelation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...to be such a recipient and dispenser of revelation. The reason for this hymn of thanksgiving is the fact that the Lord has brightened his face with his covenant, has enlightened him like the perfect dawn (1QH a xii.1–6 [iv.1–5]) and has made known to him ( yd῾ ) the wondrous divine mysteries (1QH a xii.27 [iv.26]). The author, in turn, has enlightened the face of the many (1QH a xii.27 [iv.26]) and poured the drink of knowledge (1QH a xii.11 [iv.10]). The content of revelation is, first of all, the interpretation of the Torah. God has engraved the Torah...

Wisdom Texts

Wisdom Texts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

... Sage to Sons of Dawn (in Cryptic A Script; 4Q298) is best preserved in its formulaic introduction (“Listen to me … hear my words … pay attention”). The body of the work links cosmological matters and moral instructions. On the basis of their vocabulary several other Cave 4 texts (4Q307–308, 408, 410–412, 425–426, 472–476, 486–487, and 498) have been classified as sapiential. But there is not enough complete text to grasp what contributions they might make to understanding wisdom at Qumran beyond expanding the vocabulary and repertory of motifs. Hymns and...

Apocalyptic Texts

Apocalyptic Texts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of the throne vision in 1 Enoch 14–15 and, in turn, informs the vision about theSon of Man” in 1 Enoch 46–48. The vision in Daniel 10–12 , which recounts the course of history inscribed in the heavenly “book of truth,” is presented as a kind of prophetic commissioning that is to be recorded in a written document to be revealed in the end time (12.9; cf. 1 En. 14–15). Like 1 Enoch, Daniel has sapiential features. Its heroes are sages, skilled in dream interpretation, and their latter-day counterparts are “the wise” (Heb., maskilim ). Daniel also...

FitzGerald, Edward

FitzGerald, Edward   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,284 words

... Ah, make the most of what we yet may spend, Before we too into the Dust descend; Dust into Dust, and under Dust, to lie Sans Wine, sans Song, sans Singer, and—sans End! Two stanzas later, “all the Saints and Sages who discuss’d” life, death, and the afterlife are mere “foolish Prophets … their words to Scorn / Are scatter’d, and their Mouths are stopt with Dust.” FitzGerald worried that his rendering of Omar's skeptical, Epicurean quatrains might be found “dangerous … among Divines,” and in the four editions published during his lifetime, he omitted...

Foundations and Health

Foundations and Health   Reference library

Kevin A. Walters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of the Marshall Plan, transitioned directly from his government position into the presidency of the Ford Foundation. In fact, even the increased wealth of private foundations only managed to supplement the gargantuan spending of government institutions in the 1950s and 1960s. With the NSF and NIH pouring money into the medical and natural sciences, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Kellogg Foundation, and many others decided to shift their resources to the social sciences and the arts. By 1970 , federal funding dominated university research to such an...

The Confucian Tradition and Politics

The Confucian Tradition and Politics   Reference library

Youngmin Kim, Ha-kyoung Lee, and Seongun Park

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,374 words

...who was originally the son of a poor peasant family, incorporated many elite members as core members of the new dynasty ( Dardess, 1983 ). However, Neo-Confucians were not very successful in taming the power of the early Ming rulers. More often than not, they played a role in legitimizing the new dynasty. To don the ideological garb of a Confucian sage-king, Zhu Yuanzhang reinstituted the civil service examinations in 1384 and adopted Zhu Xi’s commentaries on the Four Books as the curriculum. As there was almost no other access to office except through these...

Literature

Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...his siblings, the gods. But among the individual spells— all with the same overarching purpose—are lyric poems (like PT 261 or PT 216). Both pieces are small units that are complete in themselves, imaginative, metaphoric, and lyric: the first likens the king to a bolt of lightning flashing across the sky, and the second places the king in the protecting arms of Atum in the otherworld as the dawn light causes the stars—the king, Orion, and Sothis —to disappear. The overall purpose of the Pyramid Texts should not be confused with the form of their discrete...

Jefferson, Thomas

Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826)   Reference library

R. B. Bernstein

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...today the touchstone for the achievements and failings of the American Enlightenment. Jefferson’s remarkable range of interests and pursuits exemplified the spirit of the Enlightenment—that great, diverse intellectual movement that dominated Atlantic civilization from the late seventeenth century to the dawn of the nineteenth century. The sorting and synthesizing habits characteristic of Enlightenment thought formed the core of Jefferson’s thinking. Further, Jefferson, like his friend and fellow Revolutionary Benjamin Franklin, helped to establish the American...

Singer, Isaac Bashevis

Singer, Isaac Bashevis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
7,060 words

...reminds us that the Holocaust was not without precedent. In seventeenth-century Ukraine, followers of Bogdan Chmelnicki—a forerunner of Adolf Hitler —decimated the Jewish populations of eastern Europe. Whole communities were wiped off the map and the surviving remnant sank into despair. How could these horrors happen to the Children of Israel who yearned through long centuries for the Redemption? Perhaps, with all its horror, the nightmare of history had reached its climax and the darkest hours presaged the dawning of a new day? “The greatest cabalists in...

Deities

Deities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...began settling in the Nile Valley long before the dawn of our era and well before the beginning of the pharaonic society that the modern public associates with ancient Egypt. The seeds of the civilization that was to develop and many of the concepts that appeared in the time of the pharaohs, therefore, clearly came into being well into the distant past. Some of the ideas were generated before the establishment of any settlements along the banks of the river Nile. Archaeological evidence from the earliest periods suggests that the environment in which...

Eschatology

Eschatology   Reference library

Calvin J. Roetzel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,187 words

...the emphasis on the imminent Parousia of Jesus and make other adaptations. Increasingly New Testament scholars note signs of Mark’s dependence on Pauline traditions. More than a compiler of Jesus traditions, those interpreters view Mark as a brilliant theologian with views too close to Paul’s to be dismissed as accidental ( Marcus, 2000 , pp. 479–487). The cross. Both Paul’s letters and Mark’s Gospel proclaim the cross as a core signifier of the end-time’s dawning. For both writers, the cross of Jesus marked the beginning of the end. By his own claim the...

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