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Women

(1936), a comedy by Clare Boothe. [Ethel Barrymore Theatre, 657 perf.] Bitchy Park Avenue wife Sylvia Fowler (Ilka Chase) persuades Mary Haines (Margalo Gillmore) to use her ...

Incarcerated Women

Incarcerated Women   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,224 words
Illustration(s):
1

...black women are more likely to test positive for marijuana—a much less dangerous and nonaddictive drug. Both groups are equally likely to test positive for cocaine use. In addition, black women are also more likely to be property offenders than white women. It has been claimed that the disparity between the incarceration of black and white women is due to black women committing crimes that are more similar to those of men than those of women. Yet, a closer examination of women’s offenses tells us that the crimes committed by black women are very much...

Women's Movements

Women's Movements   Reference library

Sherifa Zuhur

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,490 words

...in the 1860s and 1870s regarding reform for women, as women later did for women's publications. As part of a growing women's press, Hind Nawfal (1860–1920), a Syrian immigrant to Alexandria, published and edited al-Fatāh , a women's Arabic monthly; Zaynab Fawwāz (1860–1914), who immigrated from Tibnin to the same city, founded the newspaper al-Nīl in 1891. Persian women also began writing and publishing women's journals, the earliest being Danesh (1907). In Turkey, early feminists included the well-known Halide Edib Adıvar (1883–1964) and Fatma Âliye...

Women's Liberation

Women's Liberation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
1,572 words

...for Women ( NOW ), founded in 1966 , championed important causes such as abortion rights and labor issues, and represented women on social and political levels. More to the left, groups such as W.I.T.C.H.M. ( Women International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell ) and the Redstockings fostered outlets in which women could express themselves. The marginalization of female minorities within many race- or sex-based organizations aided the cause of race-driven women's groups. The initial guiding force behind women's liberation groups was white women, but a...

Temple Women

Temple Women   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
997 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of a temple woman, it is difficult to locate in the past many women of this category. Such figures seem rarely to have had functions and authority parallel to those of male priests or temple servants. The differentiation of temple women from ordinary “family women” provides an indication that their professional religious duties were, in various historical contexts, regarded as incompatible with normative roles for women. The ambiguity of the status and significance of the temple women of the past has been amplified in popular and scholarly treatments by...

Single Women

Single Women   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
4,481 words

...women prevented from marrying and sometimes even resulted in suicide by single women. Economic Status. The numbers of single women in a given society have interested scholars since at least the mid‐twentieth century, but only since the 1980s have historians studied the status and experiences of single women in the past. Single women have by definition not had a marital partner to support them and thus throughout history have had to work. The history of working women, especially those who work outside the household, has often been the history of single women....

Women's Entrepreneurship

Women's Entrepreneurship   Reference library

Roksana Bahramitash and Roksana Bahramitash

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,299 words

...founders of awqāf were women. Historical Record of Women's Role in the Economy. In the case of Egypt, Judith Tucker argues that the historical evidence shows that women were engaged in a range of urban occupations and that court records illustrate that women owned many properties (at a time when British women had no ownership rights). As in the Ottoman case, women played a major role in waqf in Upper Egypt. Similar evidence from Syria in Margaret Meriwether's research of Aleppo women during the nineteenth century indicates that women were highly involved in...

Women's Magazines

Women's Magazines   Reference library

Loubna H. Skalli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,963 words

...more decades. In Turkey, women's magazines started appearing when the Young Turks instituted Ottoman reforms. At least forty women's journals began publication prior to the pre-Republican period (1919–1923), but a few of these were owned by women or counted only women writers. Nonetheless, titles such as Terakki-i Muhaddarat (Progress of Women, 1869–1870), Şűkûfezar (Flower Garden, 1883–1884), and Demet ( Bouquet , 1908–1909) debated women's rights and demanded their education and inclusion in the workforce. Muslim women in India could choose among...

Women's Rights

Women's Rights   Reference library

Roja Fazaeli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,278 words

...'s Rights . “Women's rights” in Islam is a contentious topic. Although in some respects the role of women in the Qurʾān was a definite amelioration of women's status in pre-Islamic Arabia, the Islamic tradition did not break all links with its pre-Islamic past. Some gender discriminatory laws persisted. Shaheen Sardar Ali asserts, “Despite an entirely new ideological perspective, Islam's view of the feminine was influenced by the very culture it had come to change” ( 2000 , p. 44). Azizah al-Hibri identifies the persistence of patriarchy in Qurʾānic...

Newspapers, Women's

Newspapers, Women's   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,011 words

...the General Federation of Women's Clubs, or the YWCA. Prosuffrage groups also continued producing media, from the sober Common Cause ( 1909–1920 ) to Votes, Votes for Women ( 1909–1933 ), which urged suffrage and women's employment, but ignored the controversy over birth control and abortion. Professional women had Business Women's Magazine ( 1914–1915 ), the Woman Worker (published from 1921 to 1956 by the Women's Bureau) and the Dill Pickle ( 1916–1935 ; for women journalists), while labor unions eager to organize women also got into the...

Women's Movement

Women's Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
5,160 words

...single women looking for purpose in their lives. Middle-class white women also joined the Women's Christian Temperance Union in large numbers during this period; in fact, temperance was considered an important “women's issue.” White middle-class reform women joined with working-class women to form the Women's Trade Union League to organize women workers throughout the United States. At the same time, radical female intellectuals and activists, many of whom formed a coterie in Greenwich Village in New York City, were redefining the agenda of the women's...

Pioneer Women

Pioneer Women   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,096 words

...as well. White middle-class women have left the most records, and African-American women, usually traveling as slaves, are almost invisible in the written record due to illiteracy. The lives of women already inhabiting the West when pioneers arrived—Native American and Mexican women—are only now being investigated in any detail. The largest group of pioneer women were young, married white women with children who accompanied husbands west in search of farmland to better their economic and social fortunes. The lives of farm women centered around homemaking,...

Language, Women's

Language, Women's   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,796 words

...Women's . This entry consists of two parts. The first essay addresses several linguistic issues that have been of particular and continuing concern to women. The second focuses on the ways in which the contemporary field of “interactional sociolinguistics” analyzes ways in which men and women are trained to talk (or not to talk) to one another : Women's Language Communications Between the Sexes For further information, please refer to Linguists ; Black English ; Nonstandard English . Women's Language For many years, women have been talking about...

Magazines, Women's

Magazines, Women's   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
3,724 words

...of Women's monthly, NOW Acts , and the regional No More Fun and Games (Boston), feminist periodicals have by the 1990s permeated both the general and the academic markets. Magazines of all ideological stances are represented: Focus: A Journal for Gay Women; Working Woman; Women: A Journal of Liberation (a Marxist oriented periodical); Savvy, Amazon Quarterly: A Lesbian Feminist Arts Journal; Lilith: A Quarterly for Jewish Women (Seattle); and the women's studies journals Chrysalis, Feminist Studies, Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and...

Women's Clubs

Women's Clubs   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,561 words

...women of color in its first decade, despite the existence of active African-American women's clubs. The most prominent societies generally excluded Jews and women of non–Western European descent (who, like black women, often formed their own clubs and tended to embrace reform work immediately). Women's clubs also tended to remain middle-class (or, later, “upper-middle-class”) enclaves, largely because working-class women generally had less time to devote to self-culture or civic work. It may be the clubs' unheroic stances on race , class , and women's...

Presses, Women's

Presses, Women's   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,900 words

...children's books, the Women's Studies Quarterly , educational curricula, biographies, and, most recently, anthologies of works by international women writers. Editor and co-founder Florence Howe attributes the continuing success of the Feminist Press to their twenty-year commitment to multicultural scholarship with works such as the black women's studies collection, All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, But Some of Us Are Brave ( 1982 ). The first book published by another early feminist press, the Women's Press Collective of Oakland,...

Scribbling Women

Scribbling Women   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Women's Writing in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
285 words

...Women . Scribbling women are those who refuse to be silenced by critical standards that trivialize the subjects of women's lives, and who write with energy, intelligence, and commitment. The term was coined by Nathaniel Hawthorne on 19 January 1855 , when from Liverpool, England, Hawthorne wrote to his New York publisher, William Ticknor, to report on various business matters and his plans for a new book. His publisher would not see a manuscript for some time, Hawthorne indicated, since “America is now wholly given over to a d——d mob of scribbling women,...

Women

Women   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,844 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen of 1789 gave rise immediately to the question of whether there were comparable rights for women. The French feminist and revolutionary Olympe de Gouges ( 1748–93 ) and Mary *Wollstonecraft were but two of the women who began, during the *French Revolution , to demand independent legal and political rights for women and hence initiated modern feminism. But the question of women's rights was always complex. Women were rarely overt reference-points in discussing the rights of man, the issue...

women

women   Reference library

Helen King

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,052 words
Illustration(s):
1

...examine women in areas of the ancient world other than Classical Greece and Rome, extending for example to Macedonia as well as late antiquity. In addition, work covers non-élite women, working women, prostitutes and courtesans, slave-women and the wider relationship between status and gender. Increasingly, attempts are also being made to discover how ancient women saw their world, rather than stopping at how men saw women. The ancient sources suggest that women simply reproduced the values of their culture. Plutarch ’s Sayings of Spartan Women consist of...

women

women   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,530 words

...for extending women's ‘morally superior’ influence into the world of work, especially the ‘caring’ professions. Most Catholic women who were interested in philanthropy entered the ever‐expanding ranks of women religious ( see Nuns ); Protestant women ran a wide range of philanthropic activities. A small proportion of upper middle‐class women went to university from the late 19th century and the first generation of female university lecturers and professors had a high profile in political life in the first half of the 20th century. Like women working in law,...

women

women   Reference library

Helen King

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,485 words

...examine women in areas of the ancient world other than classical Greece and Rome, extending for example to Macedonia as well as late antiquity. In addition, work covers non-élite women, working women, prostitutes and courtesans, slave-women and the wider relationship between status and gender. Increasingly, attempts are also being made to discover how ancient women saw their world, rather than stopping at how men saw women. The ancient sources suggest that women simply reproduced the values of their culture. Plutarch's Sayings of Spartan Women consist of...

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