Update
The Oxford Biblical Studies Online and Oxford Islamic Studies Online have retired. Content you previously purchased on Oxford Biblical Studies Online or Oxford Islamic Studies Online has now moved to Oxford Reference, Oxford Handbooks Online, Oxford Scholarship Online, or What Everyone Needs to Know®. For information on how to continue to view articles visit the subscriber services page.
Dismiss

You are looking at 1-12 of 12 entries  for:

  • All: Westoxification x
clear all

View:

Overview

Westoxification

Subject: Religion

Persian gharbzadegi. Term coined by the Iranian secular intellectual Jalal al-e Ahmad to describe the fascination with and dependence upon the West to the detriment of traditional, ...

Westoxification

Westoxification   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
138 words

...Westoxification Persian gharbzadegi . Term coined by the Iranian secular intellectual Jalal al-e Ahmad to describe the fascination with and dependence upon the West to the detriment of traditional, historical, and cultural ties to Islam and Islamic world. Defined as an indiscriminate borrowing from and imitation of the West, joining the twin dangers of cultural imperialism and political domination. Implies a sense of intoxication or infatuation that impairs rational judgment and confers an inability to see the dangers presented by the toxic substance, that...

Westoxification

Westoxification  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Persian gharbzadegi. Term coined by the Iranian secular intellectual Jalal al-e Ahmad to describe the fascination with and dependence upon the West to the detriment of traditional, historical, and ...
Jalal al-e Ahmad

Jalal al-e Ahmad  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(d. 1969)Iranian writer and social critic, noted for his polemical booklet Gharbzadegi (Westoxification), published in 1962, the title of which became a popular term expressing anti-Western ...
Ahmad, Jalal al-e

Ahmad, Jalal al-e (1969)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
108 words

...Ahmad, Jalal al-e (d. 1969 ) Iranian writer and social critic, noted for his polemical booklet Gharbzadegi ( Westoxification ), published in 1962 , the title of which became a popular term expressing anti-Western sentiment. Criticized Iranian secular reformists for having passively subscribed to Western cultural values and political theories. Further prescribed that Iran, as part of the Muslim world, should rely more confidently on its own traditional heritage, including religious identity. Made an early break with his family's Shii clerical tradition that...

International Law

International Law   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,081 words

...the dār al-ḥarb , but to purify the dār al-Islām , liberate it from the ceaseless attacks of the West, and rid it of noxious Western influence. In this sole respect Bin Laden 's appeal is not entirely different from Khomeini 's revolutionary call to free the region of “Westoxification.” It is therefore this entirely modern (and highly suspect) notion of self-defense, and the aim of freeing Islam from the supposed damage caused by the West through colonialism, aggression, and occupation, that formed the basis for Bin Laden 's attacks upon the United States...

Socialism and Islam

Socialism and Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,026 words

...also linked Islam with change. Jalāl Āl Ahmad (Jalal Al-e Ahmad), who had been a secular intellectual with connections to the Iranian Communist ( Tudeh ) Party, called for reshaping the nation's purpose, identity, and destiny. In his highly acclaimed work Gharb-zadegī (Westoxification), published in 1962 , he decried the westernization of Iranian society, with its destructive glorification of foreign culture and its resulting surrender of true national identity. Jalāl Āl Ahmad came to believe that Islam could inspire the mass of Iranian society to rise up...

International Law

International Law   Reference library

Mohammad-Reza Djalili, Elizabeth Keller, and Haider Ala Hamoudi

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Digital Collection

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,645 words

...Islam, liberate it from the ceaseless attacks of the West, and rid it of noxious Western influence. In this sole respect, Bin Laden ’s appeal is not entirely different from Khomeini’s revolutionary call to free the region of “Westoxification.” It is therefore this entirely modern (and highly suspect) of self-defense, and the aim of freeing Islam from the supposed damage caused by the West through colonialism, aggression, and occupation, that formed the basis for Bin ...

Muslim Political History

Muslim Political History   Reference library

Ovamir Anjum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,493 words

...followed a similar but less dramatic trajectory elsewhere in the Muslim world: Turkey's Mustafa Kemal Atatürk inspired the Pahlavis of Iran (1925–1979), but the stronger and economically independent ʿulamāʾ class was able to lead, or co-opt, a popular revolution against “westoxification” of the shahs, leading to the Islamic Revolution of 1979—remarkable for being the only religious revolution of modern times. [ See also Imamate, Theories of the ; and Sovereignty . ] Bibliography Anjum, Ovamir . Politics, Law and Community in Islamic Thought: The Taymiyyan...

Contemporary Islam: Challenges and Opportunities

Contemporary Islam: Challenges and Opportunities   Reference library

John L. Esposito

The Oxford History of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,350 words

...most influential factors in the shift towards societies that are more deeply rooted in religion. For many, westernization was merely a modern form of colonialism that resulted in overdependence on the west, what the prominent Iranian intellectual Jalal Al-e Ahmed called “Westoxification” ( gharbzadegi ). Islamic activists and movements (sometimes referred to as Islamists), as well as mainstream reformers and violent radicals, all asserted that the cure for this ailment was a return to a more indigenous and authentic sense of history and values, a...

Chronology

Chronology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
15,368 words

...Party) in Turkey 1923 Egyptian Feminist Union founded in Egypt by Hudā Shaʿrāwī 1923 ʿĀmilīyah Foundation established in Lebanon to finance welfare activities and religious events for Shīʿah 1923 Jalāl Āl-i Aḥmad (d. 1969), anti-Western Iranian intellectual who denounced “Westoxification” 1923 Nāzik al-Malāʿikah (d. 2007), Iraqi poet and literary critic 1924 Ottoman/Turkish caliphate and sharīʿah court system abolished by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk 1924 Last Ottoman Sultan, Abdülmecid, sent into exile 1924 ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl Saʿūd captures the Hijaz in Arabia...

Fundamentalism and Globalization

Fundamentalism and Globalization   Reference library

Robert A. Denemark

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,792 words

...remains a latent force against modernity. Regime failures in places like Algeria create ample room for resurgence, albeit long after independence ( Dillman 2004 ). In places like Iran, which did not suffer direct colonial domination, regime failure still brought charges of “Westoxification” ( Antoun 2001 :16), and proved problematic enough to bring the very controversial question of whether Shiites have a responsibility to take up arms against tyranny back into prominence ( Sachedina 1991 :420–21). Such debates permeate fundamentalist movements ( Armstrong ...

Islam

Islam   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
46,709 words
Illustration(s):
19

...of westernization and secularization. As dependence on Western models of development was seen as the cause of political and military failures, so too, some Muslims charged, blind imitation of the West, an uncritical westernization of Muslim societies that some called “Westoxification,” led to a cultural dependence that threatened the loss of Muslim identity. Secular, “valueless” social change was identified as the cause of sociomoral decline, a major contributor to the breakdown of the Muslim family, more permissive, promiscuous societies, and spiritual...

View: