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Design of Discrete Choice Experiments

Design of Discrete Choice Experiments   Reference library

Deborah J. Street and Rosalie Viney

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,342 words
Illustration(s):
9

...Table 4. A Generator-Developed DCE From an OA[8; 2 4 , 4;2] Choice Set OA Option 2 Option 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 3 2 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 4 0 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 5 1 0 0 1 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 6 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 7 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 The easiest way to summarize the systematic changes is to represent them by a k -tuple of numbers, which is called a generator . This generator is added to each row of the OA in turn to get the next option in the...

Coal Basins

Coal Basins   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,670 words

...mining district of the European part of the former Soviet Union. T able 2. Industrial Output of the Ruhr (millions of tons). Years Coal Coke Pig iron Crude steel 1850 1.96 0.07 0.01 — 1860 4.27 0.19 0.13 * 0.2 1870 11.57 0.34 0.36 * 0.5 1880 22.36 1.30 0.76 * 0.8 1890 35.51 3.76 1.33 * 2.0 1900 60.12 8.91 3.01 * 4.3 1913 114.22 25.05 8.20 10.11 1923 41.80 9.75 2.92 3.91 1925 104.34 22.57 8.00 9.89 1929 123.58 26.52 10.98...

Mexico

Mexico   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,267 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 1605 1.1 (2.0) to (3.1) 755 0.20.4 20–34 1700 2.6 0.9 755 0 0 1800 6.0 0.8 755 0 0 1820 6.2 0.3 566 −1.4 −25 1845 7.5 0.9 592 0.2 5 1860 8.0 0.4 535 −0.7 10 1867 8.5 0.7 535 0 0 1877 9.7 1.3 642 1.9 17 1900 13.6 1.5 1,157 2.6 80 1910 15.2 1.1 1,435 2.2 19 1940 19.7 0.9 1,556 0.3 8 1980 69.7 3.2 5,254 3.1 238 1992 89.6 2.2 5,112 −0.2 −3 1999 95.8 0.9 5,817 1.6 14 ...

Switzerland

Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,232 words
Illustration(s):
3

... 1800 1.666 [0.76] [66.0] [26.0] [8.0] 1850 2.393 0.73 [1.08] [57.0] [32.0] [10.00] 1860 2.510 0.48 — — — — 1870 2.655 0.56 — — — — 1880 2.832 0.65 — — — — 1888 2.918 0.37 1.305 37.44 41.62 20.94 1900 3.315 1.07 1.555 30.97 44.89 24.14 1910 3.753 1.25 1.783 26.76 45.49 27.75 1920 3.880 0.33 1.872 25.79 43.82 30.39 1930 4.066 0.47 1.943 21.28 44.26 34.46 1941 4.266 0.44 1.992 20.83 43.56 ...

National Defense

National Defense   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,186 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Succession ( 1701–1714 ), some 450,000 to 500,000 men went to battle. The proportion of populations serving in the armed forces increased dramatically. For example, from about 1500 to 1700 , the French armed forces share of the population increased from 0.1 to 2.1 percent, the English share increased from 1.0 to 5.4 percent; and the Swedish share during its short bid for greatness increased spectacularly to 7.1 percent. The warring participants' reliance on long-term credit was extensive. Spain's decline in the seventeenth century can be linked to the lack of...

United States

United States   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,700 words
Illustration(s):
3

... 0.8 0.00.4 Overlapping twenty-year periods 1800–1820 3.5 3.0 0.4 3.1 0.4 0.1 −0.2 1810–1830 3.6 2.9 0.6 3.1 0.5 0.1 −0.2 1820–1840 4.2 2.9 1.2 3.1 1.0 0.20.3 1830–1850 4.2 3.0 1.2 3.3 0.9 0.3 −0.8 1840–1860 4.7 3.1 1.6 3.4 1.3 0.3 −0.9 S ources : Weiss, Thomas. “U.S. Labor Force Estimates and Economic Growth, 1800 to 1860.” In American Economic Growth and Standards of Living before the Civil War , edited by R. Gallman and J. Wallis, Chicago...

Bayesian Statistical Economic Evaluation Methods for Health Technology Assessment

Bayesian Statistical Economic Evaluation Methods for Health Technology Assessment   Reference library

Andrea Gabrio, Gianluca Baio, and Andrea Manca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
16,729 words
Illustration(s):
32

...= 0 , 1 from J different studies: r j 0 ∼ Binomial ( p j 0 , n j 0 )       r j 1 ∼ Binomial ( p j 1 , n j 1 ) logit ( p j 0 ) = α j                                 logit ( p j 1 ) = α j + β j α j ∼ Normal ( μ α , σ α 2 )           β j ∼ Normal ( μ β , σ β 2 ) , (19) where p j t are the probabilities of an event in the two groups in each of the j = 1 , … , J studies, α j and β j are the estimated log-odds of an event in group 0 and between the two groups, μ = ( μ α , μ β ) are the overall pooled estimates of α j and β j , while σ 2 = ( σ α 2 ,...

Measuring Health Utility in Economics

Measuring Health Utility in Economics   Reference library

José Luis Pinto Prades, Arthur Attema, and Fernando Ignacio Sánchez Martínez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,224 words
Illustration(s):
9

...as a sequence of periods of time ( t 1 , t 2 , . . . , t n ) , each of them lived in a certain health state ( q 1 , q 2 , . . . , q n ) , the value attached to that profile (i.e., the number of QALYs) would be V ( q 1 , t 1 ; q 2 , t 2 ; . . . ; q n , t n ) = v ( q 1 ) t 1 + v ( q 2 ) t 2 + . . . + v ( q n ) t n (1) where v ( q i ) is the HRQOL weight or the “utility” corresponding to state q i , on a 0 to 1 scale, with 1 representing full health and 0 representing death—values of v ( q ) below 0 are allowed when health states are regarded as...

Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in Healthcare Decision-Making

Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in Healthcare Decision-Making   Reference library

Paul Hansen and Nancy Devlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,667 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in order of their importance. The most-important criterion gets a value of 1, the second-most important criterion gets a value of 2, and so on down to a value of K for the least-important criterion. Weights for the criteria are calculated using the formula w k = ( 1 / K ) ∑ i = k K ( 1 / i ) , where w k is the weight of the k th -ranked criterion, k = 1,2, … K (e.g., with four criteria, the weights are: 0.52, 0.27, 0.15, 0.06). Other, similar methods based on rank orders also exist ( Riabacke, Danielson, & Ekenberg, 2012 ). Swing weighting (a) ...

Financial Strain and Health

Financial Strain and Health   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,496 words

...2.5% standard deviation decline in the Mental Component Summary Scale. Similarly, Leung and Lau ( 2017 ), in their analysis of data from the Health and Retirement Study, reveal that mortgages with high loan to value ratios (defined as a loan to value ratio at or above 80%) are associated, on average, with 0.79–1.18 more depressive symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Taylor et al. ( 2007 ) use the British Household Panel Survey to show that being in mortgage arrears is associated with an average increase of 0...

Printing Industry

Printing Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,615 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Rapid Changes in the Nineteenth Century The number of printers in London quadrupled from 1785 to 1850 , and there were a few new firms of great size. Clowes and Sons and Eyre and Spottiswoode each employed some four hundred. This pattern continued and, by the mid-1960s, only 0.2 percent employed more than one thousand, while over 60 percent, under twenty-five. Rising costs in London led to relocations (Clowes moved to Beccles, Suffolk, in 1872 ); thereafter London was decreasingly dominant. The printing press remained a handpowered, wooden, screw, and flat-platen...

Microinsurance and Rural Health

Microinsurance and Rural Health   Reference library

Syed Abdul Hamid

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
6,724 words

...Schemes Country * Nature of Enrollment Total Ownership Status Voluntary HMI Compulsory HMI State-Sponsored HMI NGOs/MFIs/Others Owned HMI Bangladesh 12 1 13 0 13 Cambodia 4 0 4 0 4 Ethiopia 4 0 4 1 3 India 34 5 39 2 37 Kenya 12 0 12 2 10 Nigeria 3 2 5 1 4 Philippines 5 0 5 1 4 Tanzania 5 2 7 2 5 Uganda 8 1 9 1 8 Total 87 11 98 10 88 Percentage 89 11 100 10.2 89.8 Note:  * Countries with more than three schemes. Sources: Ahmed, Islam, and Quashem ( 2005 ) ; ILO ( 2005 , 2013 ) ; Smith, Chamberlain, Smit, and Ncube ( 2010 ) ; Smith and Chamberlin ( 2010 ) ;...

Papermaking

Papermaking   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,392 words
Illustration(s):
1

...half of the eighteenth century, this stability of technique was disrupted by developments in two areas. The first of these concerned the mechanization of production. In 1798 , the Frenchman Nicholas-Louis Robert invented the first machine capable of producing a continuous web of paper. This machine, which came to be known as the Fourdrinier, in honor of the two brothers Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier who had made Robert's device commercially viable, quickly became and has remained the mainstay of papermaking. The first working machine was installed...

The Economics of Cognitive Aging

The Economics of Cognitive Aging   Reference library

Fabrizio Mazzonna and Franco Peracchi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,593 words
Illustration(s):
10

...on cognitive investment, which implies that K t + 1 − K t ≥ ( 1 − δ t ) K t , t = 0 , . . . , T − 1. (2) It follows from Equation ( 1 ) that cognitive capital declines whenever the effective investment rate γ t i t ​ / ​ K t falls below δ t , but because of the constraint expressed in Equation ( 2 ) , its rate of decline cannot exceed δ t . The third is the lifetime budget constraint: ∑ t = 0 T c t ( 1 + r ) t + ∑ t = 0 T p t i t ( 1 + r ) t = A 0 + ∑ t = 0 T y t ( 1 + r ) t , where ρ t is the price of cognitive investment, r is the real...

Modeling Chronic Diseases in Relation to Risk Factors

Modeling Chronic Diseases in Relation to Risk Factors   Reference library

Pieter van Baal and Hendriek Boshuizen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
13,495 words
Illustration(s):
4

...C. , … Sowden, A. (2009). Methods for assessing the cost-effectiveness of public health interventions: Key challenges and recommendations. Health Policy , 93 (2–3), 85–92. Webber, L. , Kilpi, F. , Marsh, T. , Rtveladze, K. , Brown, M. , & McPherson, K. (2012). High rates of obesity and non-communicable diseases predicted across Latin America. PloS One , 7 (8), e39589. Webber, L. , Kilpi, F. , Marsh, T. , Rtveladze, K. , McPherson, K. , & Brown, M. (2012). Modelling obesity trends and related diseases in eastern Europe. Obesity...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,428 words
Illustration(s):
3

... 1. Stages of Growth in France: Average Annual Growth Rates in Percentages Period Gross domestic product Agriculture Industry and Construction 1831–1866 1.7 1.1 2.1 1866–1896 0.8 0.5 1.3 1896–1911 1.5 0.7 2.1 1911–1931 3.6 1.1 5.6 1931–1949 0.9 1.2 0.7 1949–1973 5.1 2.9 6.4 1973–1995 2.2 1.1 1.1 S ource : Claude Thélot, Olivier Marchand. Le travail en France, (1800–2000) . Paris, 1997. After the brilliant start of the 1830s to the 1860s, a major slowdown lasted...

Great Britain

Great Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,700 words
Illustration(s):
2

...be reconciled with the idea of revolutionary transformation in the economy? Crafts's (1985) careful revisions of earlier estimates of rapid economywide growth indicate that national income per capita grew at only 0.17 percent per annum in 1760–1800 and 0.52 percent per annum in 1800–1830 . Not until midcentury did growth rates touch 2 percent per annum. There was rapid growth and real structural transformation in some industrial sectors and in some parts of the country, but large parts of the economy—building, food processing, retail, and domestic...

Time Preferences for Health

Time Preferences for Health   Reference library

Marjon van der Pol and Alastair Irvine

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,575 words
Illustration(s):
3

...1 30 days starting in 2 years ☐ or ☐ 30 days starting in 4 years 2 30 days starting in 2 years ☐ or ☐ 31 days starting in 4 years 3 30 days starting in 2 years ☐ or ☐ 32 days starting in 4 years 4 30 days starting in 2 years ☐ or ☐ 33 days starting in 4 years 5 30 days starting in 2 years ☐ or ☐ 34 days starting in 4 years 6 30 days starting in 2 years ☐ or ☐ 35 days starting in 4 years 7 30 days starting in 2 years ☐ or ☐ 36 days starting in 4 years 8 30 days starting in 2 years ☐ or ☐ 37 days starting in 4 years 9 30 days starting in 2 years ☐ or ☐ 38 days...

The Economics of Early Interventions Aimed at Child Development

The Economics of Early Interventions Aimed at Child Development   Reference library

Samuel Berlinski and Marcos Vera-Hernández

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
21,080 words

...for children age 0 to 2 from relatively affluent families in Bologna in both cognitive and socioemotional measures of development, but no effects for less affluent families. The negative result might be due to differences in relative quality (as explained earlier) rather than the age per se, especially as their childcare centers have more children per adult than the childcare centers studied by Felfe and Lalive ( 2018 ) or Drange and Havnes ( 2019 ) . Baker et al. ( 2008 ) also finds negative effects of childcare subsidies for children 0 to 4 years old in...

The Evolution of Mental Health Policy and Economics

The Evolution of Mental Health Policy and Economics   Reference library

Sherry Glied and Richard Frank

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,702 words

...case of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association’s Federal Employees Health Benefits Program. Health Services Research , 21 (2 Pt 2), 267–289. Webber, M. , Corker, E. , Hamilton, S. , Weeks, C. , Pinfold, V. , Rose, D. , … Henderson, C. (2014). Discrimination against people with severe mental illness and their access to social capital: Findings from the Viewpoint survey. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences , 23 (2), 155–165. Note 1. Parity in the US context means that coverage for mental and substance use disorders can be no more restrictive...

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