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Internet

Internet   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,319 words

...Poverty, and the Internet Worldwide . Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. OpenNet Initiative . Internet Filtering in Tunisia in 2005: A Country Study . 2005. Schafer, Joseph A. “ Spinning the Web of Hate: Web-Based Hate Propagation by Extremist Organizations. ” Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture 9, no. 2 (2002): 69–88. Taylor, Max , and Ethel Quayle . Child Pornography: An Internet Crime . London: Brunner-Routledge, 2003. Terada, Minori . “E-Business Piloting and Readiness for Rural Women Weavers in Bhutan: Lessons...

International Organization for Migration

International Organization for Migration   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,762 words

...Kurdish, Tutsi, Hutu, Chechen, Bosnian, and other displaced persons. The IOM membership grew to sixty-seven, and U.S. Ambassador Brunson McKinley won election as director general at the beginning of a decade of unprecedented expansion. Twenty-first Century Programs Although its Web site heading reads “The Migration Agency,” the IOM has become a multifaceted humanitarian relief organization engaged in public health, economic development, antitrafficking, reparations claims, labor regulation, emergency rescue, and reconstruction. The IOM also provides services...

Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices

Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,468 words

...strategy for change. IAC publications are pitched at several levels, appropriate to the knowledge and interest of the target groups. For example, a regular newsletter is published every six months or so. The IAC has moved increasingly to making resources available through its Web site. Such a means of publishing saves significant costs. Other activities. Obviously a catchall category, other activities include a variety of miscellaneous undertakings not readily falling into the earlier categories. Monitoring. Monitoring and evaluations ultimately measure the...

Doctors without Borders

Doctors without Borders   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,028 words

...the Practice of Health and Human Rights. ” Lancet 370 (2007): 449–451. Mackintosh, Kate . “ Note for Humanitarian Organizations on Cooperation with International Tribunals. ” International Review of the Red Cross 86, no. 853 (March 2004): 131–146. http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/5ZBEG6/$File/IRRC_853_Mackintosh.pdf . Médecins Sans Frontières. Campaign for Access to Essential Médicines . http://www.accessmed-msf.org . Médecins Sans Frontières. Chronology of Events: June 1994–December 1995. ...

Right to Food and Adequate Standard of Living

Right to Food and Adequate Standard of Living   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,840 words

...The Special Rapporteur addresses issues such as gender discrimination, trade liberalization, genetically modified food, food sovereignty, armed conflict, nutrition, and justiciability. (His reports may be accessed at the Web site of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/mfood.htm and also at his own Web site, at http://www.righttofood.org/ .) Voluntary Guidelines Although there have been many global conferences, summits, and declarations on food security, nutrition, and hunger, the World Food Summit of 1996 was the...

Organization of the Islamic Conference

Organization of the Islamic Conference   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,123 words

...declared illegal. The Cairo Declaration is more a statement of aims than a policy document, however, for instance, interest on deposits remains legal in almost every Muslim country. Furthermore, the provisions of the declaration are violated in the job section of the OIC's own Web site, which makes it clear that the OIC General Secretariat discriminates against job applicants on the basis of not only age but also the religion of the applicant's spouse. The OIC in Today's World System The OIC, while being an important Muslim intergovernmental forum, has not...

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,383 words

...Professional Standards, March 1998; Protection—Doing Something about It and Doing It Well, January 1999; The Challenges of Complementarity, February 2000; see also, Strengthening Protection in War, May 2001; all available from ICRC, Geneva, http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/publications . Kälin, Walter . “Supervising the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees: Article 35 and Beyond.” In Refugee Protection in International Law: UNHCR's Global Consultations on International Protection , edited by Erika Feller , Volker...

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,571 words

...v. Zeljko Meakić (a/k/a Mejakić, a/k/a Meagić) et al . Case No. IT-95-4-I, Indictment (Omarska), 2 June 1998. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. http://www.icty.org/x/cases/mejakic_old/ind/en/mea-ii950213e.htm . Sassoli, Marco , and Laura M. Olson . “ The Judgment of the ICTY Appeals Chamber on the Merits in the Tadic Case. ” International Review of the Red Cross 82, no. 839 (2000): 733–769. http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/57JQQC . Schabas, William A. “ Perverse Effects of the Nulla Poena Principle: National...

Internally Displaced Persons

Internally Displaced Persons   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,357 words

...Displacement Monitoring Centre. Internal Displacement: Global Overview of Trends and Developments in 2006 . http://www.internal-displacement.org/8025708F004CFA06/(httpPublications)/6F9D5C47FA0DCCE2C12572BF002B9212?OpenDocument . International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). ICRC Position on Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) . http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/idp-icrc-position-030706/$File/2006_IDPs_EN_ICRCExternalPosition.pdf . Martin, Susan F. , Patricia Weiss Fagen , Kari Jorgensen , et al. The Uprooted: Improving Humanitarian...

Poland

Poland   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,065 words

...towards Accession. Brussels, 2002. European Court of Human Rights. Survey of Activities 2006. http://www.echr.coe.int/NR/rdonlyres/69564084-9825-430B-9150-A9137DD22737/0/Survey_2006.pdf . European Court of Human Rights. “Case of Tysiąc v. Poland .” Application no. 5410/03, Judgment, Strasbourg, March 20, 2007. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,ECHR,,POL,4562d8b62,470376112,0.html . European Court of Human Rights. “Case of Bączkowski and Others v. Poland .” Application no. 1543/06, Judgment, Strasbourg, May 3, 2007. ...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,695 words

...of the plan. The EU, Arab states, United States, Turkey, and Malaysia have all contributed to the creation of the Palestinian Academy for Security Services ( PASS ) opened in Jericho. The first class in 2006 consisted of 150 officers, 2 being women recruited from existing PA security forces. On its Web site, the Academy states that “they are the vanguard of Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas’ campaign to prevent the West Bank from falling to Hamas,” and “is part of Abbas’ new security plan to keep the Islamic militants on the defensive, and to...

AIDS/HIV

AIDS/HIV   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,225 words

...Senegal, both countries with low HIV prevalence rates (roughly 3 and 0.9 percent, respectively), an estimated 30 to 40 percent of urban sex workers have HIV. Because sex work is illegal in most countries, sex workers are less likely to receive access to health care and HIV prevention information. Only one-third of sex workers in southern Africa knew they were at risk of contracting HIV if they had unprotected sex. Similarly low levels of knowledge are evident in India, a country with between 2 and 8 million female sex workers. Many developing world governments...

Electoral Supervision

Electoral Supervision   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,367 words

...UN involvement. This is not an exact science, and so a certain amount of political judgment is applied to the decision. Once the decision is made, assistance usually falls into the following types, the following discussion of which draws heavily from the United Nations EAD's Web site. The emphasis is always on building local capacity, minimizing intrusiveness, and impartiality to the local political scene. Standard electoral assistance activities, one class of EAD activities, are relatively small-scale technical assistance activities that do not require a...

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