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organic viticulture

organic viticulture   Reference library

Monty Waldin

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,221 words

...in 2000 ), Spain (5.2% in 2010 ; <1% in 1999 ), Portugal ( c .1% in 2011 ); Germany (5.6% in 2011 ; 1.8% in 2003 ; 1.2% in 1994 ); Austria (9.2% in 2012 ; 6% in 2009 ; 1% in 1999 ; 0.3% in 1992 ); Greece (4% in 2010 ; 1% in 2000 ); Lebanon (4.5% in 2010 ); England and Wales (3.4% in 2010 ); California ( c .4% in 2011 ; 1.1% in 1999 ; 0.17% in 1989 ); Oregon (12% in 2013 ; 8.6% in 2009 ; 1.4% in 1999 ); Washington state (2.5% in 2011 ; 0.6% in 1999 ); Canada (2.8% in 2011 ); New Zealand (7.6% in 2012 ; 2% in 2009 ; 0.7% in 1999 );...

Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles

Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
26,260 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Often/Always Kissing Men 0.0% 26.0% 74.0% Women 0.0 28.0 72.0 Hugging & Cuddling Men 0.0 23.0 77.0 Women 0.0 27.0 73.0 Masturbation of Man Men 2.2 35.3 62.5 Women 5.0 56.8 38.2 Masturbation of Man Men 5.0 46.5 48.5 Women 7.0 44.5 48.5 Cunnilingus Men 19.5 60.5 20.0 Women 35.0 54.0 11.0 Fellatio Men 27.0 27.5 35.5 Women 27.0 61.0 12.0 Vaginal Intercourse Men 4.5 16.5 79.0 Women 4.5 16.5 79.0 Manual Anal Stimulation Men 68.5 29.0 2.5 Women 66.0 30.0 4.0 Anal Intercourse Men 94.0 0.0 6.0 Women 78.0 14.0 8.0 (Men: n = 276; Women: n = 452. An * ...

South Korea

South Korea   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
29,123 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1 (4.3) 2 (100.0) 1 (25.0) 14 (19.7) 19–25 3 (10.7) 5 (38.5) 13 (56.5) 1 (100.0) 2 (50.0) 24 (33.8) 26–35 9 (32.1) 3 (13.0) 1 (25.0) 13 (18.3) 36 < 13 (46.4) 2 (8.7) 15 (21.1) Total 28 (100.0) 13 (100.0) 23 (100.0) 2 (100.0) 1 (100.0) 4 (100.0) 71 (100.0) Source : Korean Women's Development Institute 2000a With the effort of the women's rights movements, Korea has achieved several legal enforcements, as noted earlier, to protect victims from sexual harassment. However, research on the public awareness of the anti-sexual violence laws showed that only 2.1% were...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
44,393 words
Illustration(s):
6

...18 ( IES2 Figs. 18 & 19, p. 798; Shimazaki 1994–95 ). Table 11 Cumulative Frequencies of Kissing, Petting, and Intercourse Experiences among the Japanese Males and Females in the 1987 and 1993 Surveys (in Percentages) Ages: 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Males Kissing 4.2 5.0 10.5 21.0 30.5 40.6 55.7 63.0 77.0 Petting 2.0 3.0 9.0 10.6 21.0 29.0 39.0 55.0 72.0 Intercourse 1.0 1.5 4.8 8.0 17.2 23.0 37.0 51.5 69.0 Females Kissing 6.0 6.5 12.0 24.5 39.5 41.0 55.0 67.0 79.0 Petting 1.0 2.0 4.2 10.5 19.5 26.5 34.5 44.7 63.0 Intercourse 1.0 2.0 4.2 8.7 21.4 25.0 34.5...

Iceland

Iceland   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,973 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of 1999 , a total of 50 cases of AIDS had been diagnosed and reported to the authorities; 33 Icelanders have died of AIDS. Table 7 Incidence of HIV from 1985 to 1996 per 100,000 Population Total Women Men 1985 7.5 1.7 13.2 1990 2.0 — 3.9 1991 3.9 1.6 6.2 1992 4.2 0.8 7.6 1993 1.1 0.8 1.5 1994 3.0 1.5 4.5 1995 1.9 1.5 2.2 1996 1.9 1.5 2.2 ( Source : Hagstofa Íslands 1997 ) Treatment, Prevention Programs, and Government Policies In 1988 , a national AIDS committee was formed by the Ministry of Health. The role of this committee included creation of...

Hong Kong

Hong Kong   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
14,550 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Institutions, and Private Hospitals from 1990 to 1997 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Syphilis 87 100 78 94 133 147 129 153 Male Deaths 3 1 2 1 4 3 0 0 Female Deaths 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 Gonorrhea 22 11 11 8 20 17 12 19 (Hong Kong Government Department of Health statistics 1990–1997 ) B. HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Incidence The statistics on HIV/AIDS come from voluntary reporting since 1984 . The cumulative number of HIV/AIDS cases as of June 1998 , and some analysis, are shown in Table 3. The trend is an increasing number of HIV/AIDS cases reported year...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
61,965 words
Illustration(s):
1

...CANADA 41.7 20.9 1.0 19.8 Newfoundland/Labrador 31.5 9.7 1.4 20.4 Prince Edward Island 36.4 5.6 1.0 29.7 Nova Scotia 39.7 15.3 0.4 24.0 New Brunswick 37.8 10.0 1.3 26.4 Quebec 40.0 24.4 0.7 14.9 Ontario 38.1 20.3 0.6 17.2 Manitoba 65.2 23.2 3.4 38.7 Saskatchewan 52.8 13.4 1.5 38.0 Alberta 50.9 23.3 2.2 25.4 British Columbia 38.8 21.7 0.9 16.1 Yukon 58.3 29.6 0.0 28.7 Northwest Territories 2 117.0 24.9 1.9 90.3 1 1998 was the fourth consecutive year of decline in Canada's teen pregnancy rate subsequent to a high of 48.8/1,000 in 1994 . 2 Includes Nunavut....

Norway

Norway   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
14,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Women 0 58% 57% 1–2 10 13 3–4 10 12 5–10 11 10 > 11 10 9 Table 2 Comparison of Frequency of Intercourse for Years 1987 and 1992 Number of Intercourses Per Year 1987 1992 0 17.9% 20.2% 1–9 27.2 37.0 10–49 29.8 22.5 50+ 25.1 20.3 Table 3 Frequency of Intercourse by Age Group Frequency Age 18–29 Age 30–39 Age 40–49 Age 50–60 Less than once a day 1.1% 0.5% 0.6% 0.7% Daily 2.7 1.1 1.2 0.3 5–6 times a week 6.9 3.0 2.6 2.0 3–4 times a week 27.9 18.6 15.4 5.8 1–2 times a week 38.9 47.6 48.6 38.9 2 times a month 13.6 18.2 17.9 24.5 Once a month or less 4.3 5.1 6.2 12.6...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
17,228 words
Illustration(s):
1

...reasons. Nonetheless, the cost of unwanted pregnancies and abortions reinforces the current position. Table 2 A Comparison of Birth Control Methods Used Worldwide and in Colombia (1995) Contraceptive Method Worldwide Usage Colombian Usage Tubal ligation 13.0% 16.9% Vasectomy 5.9 0.7 Vaginal suppository 1.0 1.0 Oral contraceptives 8.0 8.5 Intrauterine device (IUD) 9.0 7.4 Injectable contraceptives 1.0 1.8 Coitus interruptus 4.0 6.0 Rhythm 4.0 5.3 Condom 5.0 4.3 Oral contraceptives are the second most frequently used contraceptive method. According to Article 100...

Croatia

Croatia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,611 words
Illustration(s):
1

...: 0–14 years : 18.3% with 1.05 male(s) per female (sex ratio); 15–64 years : 66.3% with 1.01 male(s) per female; 65 years and over : 15.4% with 0.6 male(s) per female; Total population sex ratio : 0.94 male(s) to 1 female Life Expectancy at Birth : Total Population : 74.13 years; male : 70.52 years; female : 77.06 years Urban/Rural Distribution : 56% to 44% Ethnic Distribution : Croat: 89.6%; Serb: 4.5%; Bosnian: 0.5%; Muslim: 0.4%; Italian: 0.4%; Hungarian: 0.4%; Slovenian: 0.3%; Albanian: 0.3%; Montenegran: 0.3%; Czech: 0.2%; Roma: 0.2%; others: 3.2% (...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Abstinence 1 Other 1990 2 All women 34,516 59.3 29.5 12.6 28.5 1.4 2.8 17.7 2.7 4.8 Age 15–19 2,623 31.5 0.0 0.0 52.0 0.0 0.0 44.0 1.0 3.0 15–17 1,165 24.3 0.0 0.0 41.1 0.0 0.0 51.9 2.2 4.7 18–19 1,458 41.2 0.0 0.0 60.7 0.0 0.0 37.6 0.0 1.7 20–24 5,065 55.3 8.0 1.8 55.4 0.8 0.6 25.3 2.8 5.3 25–29 6,385 60.0 17.4 5.0 47.3 0.4 2.3 19.0 2.7 5.9 30–34 7,344 66.2 32.7 13.0 23.9 0.9 4.7 15.9 3.5 5.4 35–39 7,138 70.6 44.2 19.8 10.6 3.3 3.3 10.3 3.4 5.2 40–44 5,962 66.9 52.0 26.5 2.2 1.8 3.8 9.2 1.6 2.9 Race and Origin Hispanic 2,856 52.2 33.1 6.4 31.4 1.9 1.5 17.1...

Spain

Spain   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,020 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Total Fertility Rate : 1.16 children born per woman Population Growth Rate : 0.09% HIV/AIDS ( 1999 est.): Adult prevalence : 0.58%; Persons living with HIV/AIDS : 120,000; Deaths : 2,000. (For additional details from http://www.UNAIDS.org , see end of Section 10B.) Literacy Rate ( defined as those age 15 and over who can read and write ): 97%; education is free and compulsory from age 6 to 16 Per Capita Gross Domestic Product ( purchasing power parity ): $18,900 ( 2001 est.); Inflation : 3.8%; Unemployment : 13% B. A Brief Historical Perspective...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
17,515 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Romagna, and 8.1 in Lazio, against 0.6 in the region of Molise and 1.2 in the Basilicata. In 1997 , women constituted 23.2% of the cases. Table 1 Annual Distribution of New Cases of AIDS and Mortality Rate Year of Diagnosis New Cases Mortality Rate 1982 1 0.0% 1983 8 87.5% 1984 37 100.0% 1985 198 93.9% 1986 457 93.4% 1987 1,029 93.0% 1988 1,773 90.4% 1989 2,480 90.8% 1990 3,135 89.1% 1991 3,826 88.7% 1992 4,261 85.6% 1993 4,818 77.6% 1994 5,521 72.7% 1995 5,654 56.9% 1996 4,993 36.7% 1997 3,728 20.7% 1998 (to 30 September 1998 ) 1,430 13.6% Total 42,899...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,972 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Migration Rate : −1.39 migrant(s) per 1,000 population Total Fertility Rate : 1.93 children born per woman Population Growth Rate : 0.85% HIV/AIDS ( 1999 est.): Adult prevalence : 0.07%; Persons living with HIV/AIDS : 7,500; Deaths : 490. (For additional details from http://www.UNAIDS.org , see end of Section 10B.) Literacy Rate ( defined as those age 15 and over who can read and write ): 90.2% ( male : 93.4%, female : 87.2%) ( 1995 est.). Education is free and compulsory from age 5 to 12. However, school dropout rates remain a problem and the median...

Philippines

Philippines   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
23,700 words
Illustration(s):
1

...use during the last sex with a non-regular sex partner) was reported by 75% of men who had sex with men and 34% of female sex workers. [The estimated number of adults and children living with HIV/AIDS on January 1, 2002 , were: Adults ages 15–49: 9,400 (rate: 0.1%) Women ages 15–49: 2,500 Children ages 0–15: < 10 [An estimated 720 adults and children died of AIDS during 2001 . [At the end of 2001 , an estimated 4,100 Filipino children under age 15 were living without one or both parents who had died of AIDS. ( End of update by the Editors )] 11. Sexual...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
16,571 words
Illustration(s):
1

...8%; Kurd: 7%; Arab: 3%; Lur, Baloch, and Turkman: 2% each; other: 1% Religious Distribution : Shi'a Muslim: 89%; Sunni Muslim: 10%; Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i: 1% Birth Rate : 17.54 births per 1,000 population Death Rate : 5.39 per 1,000 population Infant Mortality Rate : 28.07 deaths per 1,000 live births Net Migration Rate : −4.46 migrant(s) per 1,000 population Total Fertility Rate : 2.01 children born per woman Population Growth Rate : 0.77% HIV/AIDS ( 1999 est.): Adult prevalence : < 0.01%; Persons living with HIV/AIDS : 3,473 reported...

India

India   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,655 words
Illustration(s):
1

...city, has 100,000 people per square kilometer (0.39 mi 2 ). Ethnic Distribution : Indo-Aryan: 72%; Dravidian: 25%; Mongoloid and other: 3% ( 2000 est.) Religious Distribution : Hindu: 81.3%; Muslim: 12%; Christian: 2.3%; Sikh: 1.9%; other groups, including Buddhist, Jain, and Parsi: 2.5% Birth Rate : 23.79 births per 1,000 population Death Rate : 8.62 per 1,000 population Infant Mortality Rate : 63.19 deaths per 1,000 live births Net Migration Rate : −0.07 migrant(s) per 1,000 population Total Fertility Rate : 2.98 children born per woman Population Growth...

Austria

Austria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,557 words
Illustration(s):
1

...reached 44% in the time period of 1985–1990 . Prevalence in prisons is estimated around 0.5% to 1.3%, 5 times higher than in the general population. UAT is not legal in Austria. Incidence of syphilis has decreased in the late 1980s to reach a stable level of 1 to 2.9 cases per 100,000. [The estimated number of adults and children living with HIV/AIDS on January 1, 2002 , were: Adults ages 15–49: 9,900 (rate: 0.2%) Women ages 15–49: 2,200 Children ages 0–15: < 100 [Less than 100 adults and children are estimated to have died of AIDS during 2001 . [No...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
30,636 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Capital Territory was from 0.8% to 16.4%. Twenty-one out of the 86 sites were rural, where HIV prevalence ranged from 2.2% to 16%; the sites with the highest prevalence in the 2001 sentinel survey were both rural. In 2001 , HIV prevalence among the 15- to 19-year-old antenatal clinic attendees tested was 5.9%, among the 20- to 24-year-olds, the rate was 6.0%, and among the 25- to 29-year-olds, 6.3%. Of the antenatal clinic attendees who were HIV-positive in 2001 , 97.5% had HIV-1, 0.4% had HIV-2, and 0.1% had both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. In the major...

Social Media

Social Media   Reference library

Arthur Lizie

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...There is little to no opportunity for feedback from receiver to sender (although newspapers have long featured letters to the editor) and no means for receiver-to-receiver information exchange. Social media, enabled by “new media” interactive technology features of the so-called Web 2.0 and wireless communication, change all this, enabling inexpensive and easy-to-use public feedback from receiver to sender; one-to-one information flow from sender to receiver; and public forums for receiver-to-receiver information exchange. As such, social media participants are...

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