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Text Criticism

Text Criticism   Reference library

James R. Royse

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
24,734 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Vulgatam versionem. ad codicum fidem . Rome: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1926–. Weber, R. , ed. Biblia sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem . Rev. ed. Stuttgart: Württembergische Bibelanstalt, 1975. P. Kyle McCarter Apocrypha Textual criticism of the Apocrypha is, in the first place, part of the wider text history of the Septuagint (LXX), given that the earliest fully preserved version of the Apocrypha is found in the Septuagint, with the exception of the Latin portions of 2 Esdras. While some apocryphal books were originally composed in Greek, some were...

Maragha

Maragha   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
657 words

...It shows a restrained use of glazed decoration in light blue that complements the reddish brick. The anonymous cylindrical tomb tower ( 1167 ) shows a more extensive use of light-blue tile, and the nearby decagonal Gunbad-i Kabud (“Blue tomb”; 1196–7 ; diam. 9.0 m) is almost enveloped in a glazed web. Tile mosaic in three colors (light and dark blue and white) appears on the two tomb towers from the 14th century, the 8.33 m square Gunbad-i Ghaffariya built for Shams al-Din Qarasunqur ( d. 1328 ), a Mamluk amir who was governor of Azerbaijan for the Ilkhanids,...

Asceticism

Asceticism   Reference library

Gail P. Streete

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,624 words

...thread in Christian theology from Anthony and Pachomius in the fourth century to Max Weber’s formulation of “ascetic Protestantism” in the early twentieth. [ See also Apocalypticism ; Body ; Holiness ; John the Baptist ; and Sexuality .] Bibliography Brown, Peter . The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity . New York: Columbia University Press, 1988. Countryman, L. William . “Asceticism or Household Morality? 1 and 2 Peter and Jude.” In Asceticism and the New Testament , edited by Leif L. Vaage and ...

Gottschalk of Orbais

Gottschalk of Orbais (c.806–c.869)   Reference library

David Ganz

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,427 words

...Hinkmar von Reims’, Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 10 (1889) 258–309. Die Konzilien der karolingischen Teilreiche ( 843–859 ), ed. W. Hartmann , MGH Concilia 3 (Hannover 1984). M.-L. Weber , Die Gedichte des Gottschalk Orbais (New York 1992). Secondary literature J. Devisse , Hincmar...

Music and Dance, Bronze and Iron Age

Music and Dance, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Theodore W. Burgh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,641 words

...other noisemakers ( 2 Sam 6:5 ASV). The description of the transportation of the ark to Jerusalem ( 2 Sam 6:5 ) employs the term mena ʿ anim , derived from the verb nua , “to shake,” suggesting a translation as “rattles” or some shaken instruments. Yet, several Bibles use castanets (NRSV, WEB), coronets (KJVS), and lutes (LXX). Sistrums (JPS) is also plausible, given how one plays the instrument. Cymbals ( tzelzelim ) were also known in Israel. In the Bible, they first appear in the instrumentation that accompanied moving the ark ( 2 Sam 6:5 ). They were...

Population and Consumption – Contemporary Religious Responses

Population and Consumption – Contemporary Religious Responses   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,965 words

...is too simple, for there are increasing numbers of well-off people in developing countries such as India and China who consume at the same unsustainable level as those in developed countries. Also, although consuming less per capita, Asia's 3.2 billion people consume more of the Earth's resources than the 0.3 billion people in North America. What religions think about population and consumption is important for it is clear that religions can and do shape people's attitudes to nature, to fertility, and to the just sharing of the Earth's resources. It is...

Religion, Roman

Religion, Roman   Reference library

Karl Galinsky, Richard L. Gordon, and Eric Orlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
12,938 words

..., koina ; Latin collegia , corpora ) were organized both at the civic level and by private religious entrepreneurs—what may be called, with Max Weber, “mystagogues”—who used their financial resources to rent, furnish, maintain, and sometimes even build accommodation for their association (a good example is the association of the Dionysiastai in Peiraeus/Attica: IG II2 1326 = Jaccottet, 2003 , 2: no.2 = Kloppenborg, Ascough, and Harland, 2011–2013 , 1: no. 36, 176/5 b.c.e. ). Members undertook to pay an entrance fee, often in kind (food or wine but...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
117,015 words
Illustration(s):
77

...strapwork decorating the spandrels and tympanum over the doorway. By the time the nearby Gunbad-i Kabud was built ( 1196–7 ), the use of color had increased to such an extent that the tomb is virtually enveloped by a web of blue glazed tile. Bannā῾ī (“builder's [technique]”) was an easy and effective way of decorating large surfaces (see §X, B, 2 below). Plaster and terracotta were also used to cover large surfaces, especially in mud-brick buildings. The Imamzada Karrar at Buzun in central Iran ( 1133–4 ), a rectangular structure in mud-brick, has magnificent...

Central Asia

Central Asia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
48,691 words
Illustration(s):
10

...surface of the design. Cross stitch (Tajik iroki ) was widespread in the mountains, while it was used to decorate robes in Bukhara and Shahr-i Sabz. Embroidery was used to decorate furnishings, clothing and ceremonial objects. Large wall hangings ( sūzanī ; usually 3.5×2.5 m and 2.0×1.5 m) were made of embroidered panels, occasionally done by different hands, sewn together (see fig. 8). Embroidery was also used for blanket- and cushion-covers, hearth-covers ( sandalpush ), prayer mats ( dzhoynamoz ) and other decorative items. Embroidery was obligatory...

Textiles

Textiles   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
32,331 words
Illustration(s):
12

...Many of these motifs appear in contemporary manuscripts, metalwork and ceramics made for the Ottoman court, suggesting that court studios had a strong impact on textile designers and weavers. 7. Compound-weave silk and twill fragment woven with metal thread, 0.67×1.21 m, from Bursa or Istanbul, 2nd half 16th century (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1952 (52.20.21); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY In the 18th and 19th centuries the fondness for floral motifs continued, and during the Tulip...

Internet, Blogs, and Social Networking

Internet, Blogs, and Social Networking   Reference library

Anna Piela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,724 words

..., and Sophia Huyer . “Women and Gender in ICT Statistics and Indicators for Development.” Information Technologies and International Development 4.2 (2008): 25–41. “ICT Statistics by Gender 2010,” International Telecommunication Union, 2010, http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/Gender/index.html . Leage, Rodda , and Ivana Chalmers . “Degrees of Caution: Arab Girls Unveil on Facebook.” In Girl Wide Web 2.0: Revisiting Girls, the Internet, and the Negotiation of Identity , edited by Sharon R. Mazzarella , pp. 27–44. New York: Peter Lang, 2010. Lewis,...

Djibouti

Djibouti   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,127 words

...and the Horn of Africa . Stanford, Calif., 1968. Overview of Djibouti's history, with an extensive bibliography. Trimingham, J. Spencer. Islam in East Africa . Oxford, 1964. World Bank. Country Brief: Djibouti . August 2003. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/ACCUEILEXTN/PAYSEXTN/MENAINFRENCHEXT/DJIBOUTIINFRENCHEXTN/0,contentMDK:20146336~isCURL:Y~menuPK:1678347~pagePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:468088,00.html ; accessed 7/11/2008. Charlotte A. Quinn Updated by Lahra...

Social Discipline

Social Discipline   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,223 words

...Geneva, the rate of illegitimacy was only 0. 1375 percent. From 1560 to 1569 , of 6,940 infants baptized, only eight were illegitimate. Similarly, prenuptial conceptions averaged 4 percent between 1550 and 1581 . To put these figures into perspective: in the Genevan countryside, where church discipline was not as effectively established, the percentage of couples who baptized a child within eight months of their wedding was ten times higher than in Geneva. And in neighboring Lausanne, also a Protestant city, 1.2 percent of baptisms were of illegitimate...

Religious Regulation in Brazil

Religious Regulation in Brazil   Reference library

Claudia Cerqueira and Guadalupe Tuñón

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,906 words
Illustration(s):
3

... 1940 and 2010 , the share of Evangelicals in the population grew from 2.61% to 22.2% (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, IBGE). During the same period, the proportion of individuals affiliated with Afro-Brazilian religions has oscillated between 0.6 and 0.3% of the population (IBGE). Changes in Brazil’s religious landscape are explained in part by the opportunities and restrictions that government regulations place on religious organizations ( Finke & Iannaccone, 1993 ). 2 Regulation shapes religious competition by changing the incentives and...

Electoral Choice and Religion: United States

Electoral Choice and Religion: United States   Reference library

Jeremiah J. Castle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,170 words
Illustration(s):
4

...economics comes from German sociologist Max Weber’s ( 1930 ) famous “Protestant ethic” thesis. In the Calvinist strain of Protestant theology, hard work and discipline were thought to be a sign of being one of “the elect” (i.e., those predestined to salvation). A consequence was that hard work was valued and encouraged in majority-Protestant societies. Weber ( 1930 ) famously argued that this Protestant ethic was an important factor in the development and flourishing of capitalism in western Europe. Weber’s thesis received some support in survey research....

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics   Reference library

Paul A. Djupe and Amy Erica Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,394 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Politics & Religion , 9 , 566–604. Warner, C. M. , Kilinc, R. , Hale, C. W. , Cohen, A. B. , & Johnson, K. A. (2015). Religion and public goods provision: Experimental and interview evidence from Catholicism and Islam in Europe. Comparative Politics , 47 (2), 189–209. Weber, C. , & Thornton, M. (2012). Courting Christians: How political candidates prime religious considerations in campaign ads. Journal of Politics , 74 , 400–413. Wu, J. S.-Y. , & Knuppe, A. J. (2016). My brother’s keeper? Religious cues and support for foreign military...

Education

Education   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
19,936 words
Illustration(s):
1

...15.3 4.9 10.1 93.9 - 93.9 - Kazakhstan - 44 1.8 0.5 1.2 0.7 0.2 0.5 89.7 91.9 89.7 91.9 Kuwait 1962 - 27.4 20.7 23.3 9 5.6 6.7 50.6 86.9 50.6 86.9 Kyrgyzstan 1951 - - - - 1.9 0.7 1.3 92.5 87.2 92.5 87.2 Lebanon 1866 13 26.9 11.7 19.7 - - - 73.7 92.9 73.7 92.9 Libya 1955 6 48.9 17.2 31.9 - - - 98 - 98 - Malaysia 1904 8 25.6 13.1 19.3 14.6 8 11.3 95.1 - 95.1 - Maldives - 0 5.4 5 5.2 3.6 3.8 3.7 92.9 - 92.9 - Mali - - - - - 88.1 73.3 81 25.8 - 25.8 - Mauritania 1981 - 76.1 53.7 65.2 56.6 40.5 48.8 40.6 72.2 40.6 72.2 Morocco 857/1957 8 75.1 47.3 61.3 60.4 34.3...

Protest and Religion: An Overview

Protest and Religion: An Overview   Reference library

Yasemin Akbaba

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,166 words

...Consequently, religion often is at the core of individual and group identity. ( Seul, 1999 , p. 558) In line with its central role in identity, religion may delineate individual’s preferences and facilitate mobilization: If religion shapes culture, or is shaped by culture, as Weber and Durkheim respectively suggest, then cultural theory offers an important insight into how religion shapes individual preferences. These preferences combine to form the motive for the political mobilization of religious organizations. ( Wald, Silverman, & Fridy, 2005 , p. 125)...

Islam and Islamic Studies in Scandinavia

Islam and Islamic Studies in Scandinavia   Reference library

Susanne Olsson and Simon Sorgenfrei

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
13,721 words
Illustration(s):
1

...views and radicalisation among young people . EU European Web Site on Integration. Danmark bør indføre forbud mod burka og niqab (Denmark should introduce a ban on burka and niqab). (2017). Berlingske , July 24. https://www.berlingske.dk/ Dindler, S. , & Olesen, A. (1988). Islam og muslimer i de danske medier . Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus Universitetsforlag. Dogan, G. (2012). Moral geographies and the disciplining of senses among Swedish Salafis. Comparative Islamic Studies , 8 (1–2), 93–111. Døving, A. (2005). Norsk-pakistanske begravelsesritualer:...

Civil Strife, Politics, and Religion in Algeria

Civil Strife, Politics, and Religion in Algeria   Reference library

Yahia H. Zoubir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
15,859 words

...necessity. The Radicalization of the Islamist Movement The radicalization of Islamism deepened in the 1980s as the country was plunged into economic and social crisis. The phenomenon found its importance in the wake of what sociologists such as Max Weber refer to as the “disenchantment of the world” (Weber, in Mills, 1978 , p. 129ff), an occurrence triggered by modernization. In Algeria, this disenchantment was a consequence of 20 years of independence without the fulfillment of the promises that the authorities had made ( Etienne, 1987 ). Thus, one can...

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